Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fifteenth Amendment in the National Archives
An 1867 drawing depicting African Americans casting ballots
An 1869 Thomas Nast cartoon supporting the Fifteenth Amendment. In the cartoon, Americans of different ancestries and ethnic backgrounds sit together at a dinner table with Columbia to enjoy a Thanksgiving meal as equal members of the American citizenry, while Uncle Sam carves a turkey.
1870 print celebrating the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment in February 1870, and the post Civil War political empowerment of African Americans
Voter registration card, Alamance County, North Carolina, 1902, with statement from registrant of birth before January 1, 1867, when the Fifteenth Amendment became law
President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal government and each state from denying or abridging a citizen's right to vote "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

- Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

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Reconstruction Amendments

A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled "The 'Rail Splitter' at Work Repairing the Union." The caption reads (Johnson): Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever!! (Lincoln): A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended!
Text of the 13th Amendment
Text of the 15th Amendment

The, or the , are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870.

Poll taxes in the United States

Tax of a fixed sum on every liable individual , without reference to income or resources.

Receipt for payment of poll tax, Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, 1917

After the right to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, a number of states enacted poll tax laws as a device for restricting voting rights.

Literacy test

A literacy test assesses a person's literacy skills: their ability to read and write have been administered by various governments to immigrants.

Editorial cartoon from the January 18, 1879, issue of Harper's Weekly criticizing the use of literacy tests. It shows "Mr. Solid South" writing on wall, "Eddikashun qualifukashun. The Blak man orter be eddikated afore he kin vote with us Wites, signed Mr. Solid South."

In Lassiter v. Northampton County Board of Elections (1959), the U.S. Supreme Court held that literacy tests were not necessarily violations of Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment nor of the Fifteenth Amendment.

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.

Alabama police in 1965 attack voting rights marchers on "Bloody Sunday", the first of the Selma to Montgomery marches
United States President Lyndon B. Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and Rosa Parks at the signing of the Voting Rights Act on August 6, 1965
United States President George W. Bush signs amendments to the Act in July 2006
The first page of the Voting Rights Act of 1965
States and counties encompassed by the Act's coverage formula in January 2008 (excluding bailed-out jurisdictions). Several counties subsequently bailed out, but the majority of the map accurately depicts covered jurisdictions before the Supreme Court's decision in Shelby County v. Holder (2013), which declared the coverage formula unconstitutional.
Final page of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, signed by United States President Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the Senate Hubert Humphrey, and Speaker of the House John McCormack

Designed to enforce the voting rights guaranteed by the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution, the Act sought to secure the right to vote for racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South.

Grandfather clause

Provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases.

The Athlone Power Station in Cape Town, South Africa

Racial restrictions on voting in place before 1870 were nullified by the Fifteenth Amendment.

Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.

The official Joint Resolution of Congress proposing what became the 24th Amendment as contained in the National Archives

Southern states had adopted the poll tax as a requirement for voting as part of a series of laws in the late 19th century intended to exclude black Americans from politics so far as practicable without violating the Fifteenth Amendment.

Ulysses S. Grant

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

As president, Grant stabilized the post-war national economy, supported Congressional Reconstruction, ratification of the the 15th Amendment, and crushed the Ku Klux Klan.

National Woman Suffrage Association

Formed on May 15, 1869, to work for women's suffrage in the United States.

Constitution and officers of the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1876
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony about 1870
Victoria Woodhull speaking before the House Judiciary Committee. Stanton, with white curls, is sitting directly behind her.
Anthony's diary for January 1, 1872, noting her arduous traveling and speaking schedule during the previous year and her new friendship with Senator-elect Aaron A. Sargent, who later introduced what would become the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and his wife Ellen Clark Sargent, who became treasurer of the NWSA.
Virginia Minor, co-developer of the NWSA's New Departure strategy
Ernestine Rose, pioneer worker for women's rights, member of first NWSA executive committee.<ref>Stanton, Anthony, Gage (1887), Vol. 2, p. 401.</ref>
Matilda Joslyn Gage, president of the NWSA 1875–86,<ref>Stanton, Anthony, Gage (1887), Vol. 2, p. 585</ref> co-author of History of Woman Suffrage, author of Woman, Church and State
Olympia Brown, first woman ordained as clergy with the consent of her denomination
Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis, main organizer of the first National Women's Rights Convention,<ref>McMIllen, p. 106</ref> author of The History of the National Woman's Rights Movement

It was created after the women's rights movement split over the proposed Fifteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, which would in effect extend voting rights to black men.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

American writer and activist who was a leader of the women's rights movement in the U.S. during the mid- to late-19th century.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, c. 1880, age 65
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her daughter, Harriot
The Stanton house in Seneca Falls
Lucretia Mott
Frederick Douglass
Susan B. Anthony
The Bloomer dress
One of the petitions collected by the League in opposition to slavery
A petition to Congress for a women's suffrage amendment signed by Stanton, Anthony, Lucy Stone, Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Ernestine Rose, and other leading women's rights activists
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Printing House Square in Manhattan in 1868, showing the sign for The Revolutions office at the far right below The World and above Scientific American.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, [ca. 1859–1870]. Carte de Visite Collection, Boston Public Library.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1889
Harriot Stanton Blatch, daughter of Elizabeth Cady 
Elizabeth Cady 
Stanton House in Tenafly, New Jersey, in 2015
Stanton (seated) and Susan B. Anthony
The monument for Henry Brewster Stanton and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in Woodlawn Cemetery. Her accomplishments are listed on another side of the monument
The U.S. Capitol rotunda Portrait Monument by Adelaide Johnson (1921), depicts pioneers of the woman suffrage movement Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony
U.S. postage stamp commemorating the Seneca Falls Convention titled 100 Years of Progress of Women: 1848–1948. From left to right, Stanton, Carrie Chapman Catt, Lucretia Mott.

When the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was introduced that would provide suffrage for black men only, they opposed it, insisting that suffrage should be extended to all African Americans and all women at the same time.

Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution prohibits the United States and its states from denying the right to vote to citizens of the United States on the basis of sex, in effect recognizing the right of women to a vote.

The Nineteenth Amendment in the National Archives
Text of the small ad that attracted a diverse meeting of women and men at the first Women's Rights Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York, during July 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (seated) with Susan B. Anthony
Elizabeth Cady Stanton before the Senate Committee on Privileges and Elections. New York Daily Graphic, January 16, 1878, p. 501
Suffragist and civil rights activist Mary Church Terrell
Nannie Helen Burroughs holding a Woman's National Baptist Convention banner
Carrie Chapman Catt, President of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, organized the "Winning Plan" that helped secure passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.
"Silent Sentinels" begin a 2 1⁄2-year campaign in front of the White House (1917).
Nina Allender political cartoon aimed at President Wilson published in The Suffragist on October 3, 1917
"The Big Issue At The Polls" (Judge, Oct 25, 1919)
Headquarters of the anti-suffragist National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage
Though accusations of bribery did not cause the Tennessee legislature to reconsider its ratification of the suffrage amendment, Alice Paul immediately cautioned that "women are not yet fully free" and that women "can expect nothing from the politicians...until they stand as a unit in a party of their own", saying that discrimination still exists "on the statute books which will not be removed by the ratification". Paul charged that the amendment passed only because "it at last became more expedient for those in control of the Government to aid suffrage than to oppose it".
Sewing stars on a suffrage flag.
c. 1920
A Ladies Home Journal ad targeted female votes for 1920 presidential election.

During the Reconstruction era, women's rights leaders advocated for inclusion of universal suffrage as a civil right in the Reconstruction Amendments (the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments).