Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flightfight or flight responsehyperarousalflight or fightstress responsesadrenaline rushFight or Fleefleeing
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.wikipedia
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Walter Bradford Cannon

Walter CannonWalter B. CannonDr. Walter B. Cannon
It was first described by Walter Bradford Cannon.
He coined the term fight or flight response, and he expanded on Claude Bernard's concept of homeostasis.

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
His theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the animal for fighting or fleeing.
The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-flight-or-freeze response.

Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.
It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation response, and blood sugar level.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.
The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis.

Catecholamine

catecholaminescatecholamine synthesiscatecholamine systems
More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or-flight response.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
The medulla produces the catecholamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline, which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.

Adrenal medulla

medullamedullary(medulla)
More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Notable effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline include increased heart rate and blood pressure, blood vessel constriction in the skin and gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle (bronchiole and capillary) dilation, and increased metabolism, all of which are characteristic of the fight-or-flight response.

Norepinephrine

noradrenalinenoradrenergicnoradrenalin
More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Norepinephrine release is lowest during sleep, rises during wakefulness, and reaches much higher levels during situations of stress or danger, in the so-called fight-or-flight response.

Acetylcholine

cholinergicAChacetylcholine (ACh)
This system utilises and activates the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Broadly speaking, the function of the sympathetic nervous system is to mobilize the body for action; the phrase often invoked to describe it is fight-or-flight.

Serotonin

5-HTserotonergic5-hydroxytryptamine
The hormones estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress.
The reason for this is social experience alters the proportion between serotonin receptors (5-HT receptors) that have opposing effects on the fight-or-flight response.

Aggression

aggressiveaggressivenessaggressive behavior
Individuals with higher levels of emotional reactivity may be prone to anxiety and aggression, which illustrates the implications of appropriate emotional reaction in the fight or flight response.
An animal defending against a predator may engage in either "fight or flight" or "tend and befriend" in response to predator attack or threat of attack, depending on its estimate of the predator's strength relative to its own.

Pupillary response

pupil dilationpupillary dilationdilation
The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal.

Goose bumps

piloerectiongoose pimplesgooseflesh
The cat shows accelerated heartbeat, piloerection (hair standing on end), and pupil dilation, all signs of sympathetic arousal.
The reflex is started by the sympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for many fight-or-flight responses.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
Individuals with higher levels of emotional reactivity may be prone to anxiety and aggression, which illustrates the implications of appropriate emotional reaction in the fight or flight response.
Anxiety is related to the specific behaviors of fight-or-flight responses, defensive behavior or escape.

Predatory imminence continuum

predator
If the zebra sees a lion closing in for the kill, the stress response is activated as a means to escape its predator.
At this point, the animal enters the circa-strike phase, where its behaviour will transition from passive freezing to active flight, or even attack if escape is not possible.

Psychological trauma

traumatraumatizedtraumatic
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

Injury

traumainjuriesphysical trauma
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

Estrogen

oestrogenestrogensestrogenic
The hormones estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress.

Testosterone

low testosterone levels due to agingmetabolismprenatal exposure to androgens
The hormones estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
The hormones estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress.

Dopamine

dopaminergic systemDAdopaminergic
The hormones estrogen, testosterone, and cortisol, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, also affect how organisms react to stress.

Vertebrate

Vertebratavertebratesvertebral
This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.

Organism

organismsflora and faunaliving organisms
This response is recognised as the first stage of the general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms.

Heart rate

heartbeatresting heart ratemaximum heart rate
The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal.

Digestion

digestivedigestdigested
The autonomic nervous system is a control system that acts largely unconsciously and regulates heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, pupillary response, urination, and sexual arousal.