A report on Fight-or-flight response

An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response
Bison hunted by dogs

Physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

- Fight-or-flight response
An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response

16 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Schematic illustration showing the sympathetic nervous system with sympathetic cord and target organs.

Sympathetic nervous system

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One of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

One of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the parasympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system.

Schematic illustration showing the sympathetic nervous system with sympathetic cord and target organs.
The sympathetic nervous system extends from the thoracic to lumbar vertebrae and has connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses.
Scheme showing structure of a typical spinal nerve. 1. Somatic efferent. 2. Somatic afferent. 3,4,5. Sympathetic efferent. 6,7. Sympathetic afferent.
Sympathetic Nervous System – Information transmits through it affecting various organs.

The sympathetic nervous system's primary process is to stimulate the body's fight or flight response.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

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Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

Norepinephrine release is lowest during sleep, rises during wakefulness, and reaches much higher levels during situations of stress or danger, in the so-called fight-or-flight response.

Catechol

Catecholamine

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Monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.

Monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.

Catechol

Release of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands is part of the fight-or-flight response.

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

Adrenaline

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Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

It plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart by acting on the SA node, pupil dilation response and blood sugar level.

Schematic overview of the classes of stresses that plants are exposed to

Stress (biology)

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Organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

Organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

Schematic overview of the classes of stresses that plants are exposed to
Neuro-hormonal response to stress
A diagram of the General Adaptation Syndrome model.

The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.

Adrenal medulla

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Part of the adrenal gland.

Part of the adrenal gland.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.
In H&E staining the adrenal medulla (on the pointer) stains lighter than the adrenal cortex.

Notable effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline include increased heart rate and blood pressure, blood vessel constriction in the skin and gastrointestinal tract, smooth muscle (bronchiole and capillary) dilation, and increased metabolism, all of which are characteristic of the fight-or-flight response.

Walter Bradford Cannon

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American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.

American physiologist, professor and chairman of the Department of Physiology at Harvard Medical School.

Walter Bradford Cannon

He coined the term "fight or flight response", and he developed the theory of homeostasis.

Acetylcholine

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Organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals (including humans) as a neurotransmitter.

Organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals (including humans) as a neurotransmitter.

Acetylcholine pathway.
Acetylcholine processing in a synapse. After release acetylcholine is broken down by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase.
Muscles contract when they receive signals from motor neurons. The neuromuscular junction is the site of the signal exchange. The steps of this process in vertebrates occur as follows: (1) The action potential reaches the axon terminal. (2) Calcium ions flow into the axon terminal. (3) Acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft. (4) Acetylcholine binds to postsynaptic receptors. (5) This binding causes ion channels to open and allows sodium ions to flow into the muscle cell. (6) The flow of sodium ions across the membrane into the muscle cell generates an action potential which induces muscle contraction. Labels: A: Motor neuron axon B: Axon terminal C: Synaptic cleft D: Muscle cell E: Part of a Myofibril
Components and connections of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Micrograph of the nucleus basalis (of Meynert), which produces acetylcholine in the CNS. LFB-HE stain.

Broadly speaking, the function of the sympathetic nervous system is to mobilize the body for action; the phrase often invoked to describe it is fight-or-flight.

Freezing behavior

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Reaction to specific stimuli, most commonly observed in prey animals.

Reaction to specific stimuli, most commonly observed in prey animals.

A response to stimuli typically is said to be a "fight or flight", but is more completely described as "fight, flight, or freeze".

Serotonin

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Monoamine neurotransmitter.

Monoamine neurotransmitter.

Serotonin system, contrasted with the dopamine system
The pathway for the synthesis of serotonin from tryptophan.
process

The reason for this is social experience alters the proportion between serotonin receptors (5-HT receptors) that have opposing effects on the fight-or-flight response.