File sharing

file-sharingfilesharingsharingpeer-to-peer file sharingfile sharersP2Pfile sharing networksmusic sharingfile distributiondistribute or share files
File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.wikipedia
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Peer-to-peer file sharing

P2Ppeer-to-peer filesharingpeer-to-peer
Peer-to-peer file sharing is based on the peer-to-peer (P2P) application architecture.
P2P file sharing allows users to access media files such as books, music, movies, and games using a P2P software program that searches for other connected computers on a P2P network to locate the desired content.

Peer-to-peer

P2Ppeer to peerpeer-to-peer network
Peer-to-peer file sharing is based on the peer-to-peer (P2P) application architecture. Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking.
While P2P systems had previously been used in many application domains, the concept was popularized by file sharing systems such as the music-sharing application Napster (originally released in 1999).

Shared resource

network sharenetwork sharesresource sharing
Shared files on the computers of other users are indexed on directory servers.
The term file sharing traditionally means shared file access, especially in the context of operating systems and LAN and Intranet services, for example in Microsoft Windows documentation.

Internet Relay Chat

IRCclientIRC client
Internet Relay Chat (1988) and Hotline (1997) enabled users to communicate remotely through chat and to exchange files.
IRC is mainly designed for group communication in discussion forums, called channels, but also allows one-on-one communication via private messages as well as chat and data transfer, including file sharing.

File hosting service

file hostingonline file storagecloud storage
Such services have become popular via consumer-oriented file hosting services such as Dropbox and Google Drive.
Although one-click hosting can be used for many purposes, this type of file sharing has, to a degree, come to compete with P2P filesharing services.

Audiogalaxy

In 1998, MP3.com and Audiogalaxy were established, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act was unanimously passed, and the first mp3 player devices were launched.
From 1998 to 2002, it was a file sharing system that indexed MP3 files.

MP3

.mp3MP3 downloadmp3s
The mp3 encoding, which was standardized in 1991 and substantially reduced the size of audio files, grew to widespread use in the late 1990s.
The MP3 format soon became associated with controversies surrounding copyright infringement, music piracy, and the file ripping/sharing services MP3.com and Napster, among others.

GiFT

poisonedApollongiFTcurs
In 2001, Kazaa and Poisoned for the Mac was released.
giFT Internet File Transfer (giFT) is a computer software daemon that allows several file sharing protocols to be used with a simple client having a graphical user interface (GUI).

Morpheus (software)

Morpheus
The network was proprietary and encrypted, and the Kazaa team made substantial efforts to keep other clients such as Morpheus off of the FastTrack network.
Morpheus was a file sharing and searching peer-to-peer client for Microsoft Windows, developed and distributed by the company StreamCast, that originally used the Opennap protocol, but later supported many different peer-to-peer protocols.

A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc.

NapsterNapster music copyright caselawsuits
In July 2001, Napster was sued by several recording companies and lost in A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc..
A&M Records, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 239 F.3d 1004 (2001) was a landmark intellectual property case in which the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the ruling of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, holding that defendant, peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing service Napster, could be held liable for contributory infringement and vicarious infringement of the plaintiffs' copyrights.

FastTrack

FastTrack protocol
Its FastTrack network was distributed, though unlike gnutella, it assigned more traffic to 'supernodes' to increase routing efficiency.
FastTrack is a peer-to-peer (P2P) protocol that was used by the Kazaa, Grokster, iMesh, and Morpheus file sharing programs.

The Pirate Bay

Pirate Bayphysibleretaliatory
From 2002 through 2003, a number of BitTorrent services were established, including Suprnova.org, isoHunt, TorrentSpy, and The Pirate Bay. In 2006, police raids took down the Razorback2 eDonkey server and temporarily took down The Pirate Bay.
Founded in 2003 by Swedish think tank Piratbyrån, The Pirate Bay allows visitors to search, download, and contribute magnet links and torrent files, which facilitate peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing among users of the BitTorrent protocol.

EDonkey network

eDonkeyeD2keDonkey2000 network
In 2006, police raids took down the Razorback2 eDonkey server and temporarily took down The Pirate Bay.
The eDonkey Network (also known as the eDonkey2000 network or eD2k) is a decentralized, mostly server-based, peer-to-peer file sharing network created in 2000 by US developers Jed McCaleb and Sam Yagan that is best suited to share big files among users, and to provide long term availability of files.

Freenet

EffectFreenet Messaging System (FMS)Freenet Project
Gnutella, eDonkey2000, and Freenet were released in 2000, as MP3.com and Napster were facing litigation.
The Freenet file sharing network stores documents and allows them to be retrieved later by an associated key, as is now possible with protocols such as HTTP.

MLDonkey

Furthermore, multi-protocol file sharing software such as MLDonkey and Shareaza adapted in order to support all the major file sharing protocols, so users no longer had to install and configure multiple file sharing programs.
MLDonkey is an open-source, multi-protocol, peer-to-peer file sharing application that runs as a back-end server application on many platforms.

Arista Records LLC v. Lime Group LLC

Arista
In October 2010, Limewire was forced to shut down following a court order in Arista Records LLC v. Lime Group LLC but the gnutella network remains active through open source clients like Frostwire and gtk-gnutella.
LimeWire is a program that uses peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing technology, which permits users to share digital files via an Internet-based network known as Gnutella; most of these were MP3 files containing copyrighted audio recordings.

The Pirate Bay trial

trial2009 trialKing Kong defense
In 2009, the Pirate Bay trial ended in a guilty verdict for the primary founders of the tracker.
The term "King Kong defense" was quickly popularized by blogs, file sharing news feeds, and media reports on the Pirate Bay trial.

MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd.

MGM v. GroksterGroksterMGM Studios v. Grokster
For example, in MGM v. Grokster, the Supreme Court ruled that the creators of P2P networks can be held liable if their software is marketed as a tool for copyright infringement.
MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., 545 U.S. 913 (2005), is a United States Supreme Court decision in which the Court unanimously held that defendant peer-to-peer file sharing companies Grokster and Streamcast (maker of Morpheus) could be sued for inducing copyright infringement for acts taken in the course of marketing file sharing software.

Comparison of file-sharing applications

clients
Comparison of file sharing applications
File sharing is a method of distributing electronically stored information such as computer programs and digital media.

Graduated response

three strikes policythree-strikesthree strikes policies
Graduated response
Graduated response (also known as three strikes) is a protocol or law, adopted in several countries, aimed at reducing unlawful file sharing.

Kim Dotcom

belowDotcom
Kim Dotcom (formerly Kim Schmitz) was arrested with three associates in New Zealand on January 20, 2012 and is awaiting extradition.
Megaupload was a file hosting and sharing online service in which users could share links to files for viewing or editing.

Trade group efforts against file sharing

anti-copyright-infringement litigationapproximately 13,000 lawsuitscopyright infringement lawsuits
Trade group efforts against file sharing
Arts and media industry trade groups, such as the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI) and Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), strongly oppose and attempt to prevent copyright infringement through file sharing.

Open music model

Open Music Model
It predicts that the playback of prerecorded music will be regarded as a service rather than as individually sold products, and that the only system for the digital distribution of music that will be viable against piracy is a subscription-based system supporting file sharing and free of digital rights management.

Missionary Church of Kopimism

Kopimism
Missionary Church of Kopimism
The Missionary Church of Kopimism (in Swedish Missionerande Kopimistsamfundet), is a congregation of file sharers who believe that copying information is a sacred virtue and was founded by Isak Gerson, a 19-year-old philosophy student, and Gustav Nipe in Uppsala, Sweden in the autumn of 2010.

Copyright

copyright lawcopyrightscopyrighted
Even works covered by copyright can be shared under certain circumstances.
Criminal sanctions are generally aimed at serious counterfeiting activity, but are now becoming more commonplace as copyright collectives such as the RIAA are increasingly targeting the file sharing home Internet user.