Film

motion picturemoviefilmscinemamotion picturesmoviesscreencinematicmoving imagefeature films
Film, also called movie or motion picture, is a visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations.wikipedia
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Cinematography

cinematographercinematographiccinema
The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.
Cinematography (from ancient greek κίνημα, kìnema "movement" and γράφειν, gràphein "to write") is the art of motion-picture photography and filming either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.

Film industry

FilmMotion picturesmovie industry
The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.
Though the expense involved in making films almost immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, and expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve.

Animation

animatedanimated filmanimated short
The moving images of a film are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, and other visual effects.
In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film.

Computer animation

computer-animatedcomputer animatedCGI
The moving images of a film are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, and other visual effects.
Sometimes, the target of the animation is the computer itself, but sometimes film as well.

Movie projector

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Traditionally, films were recorded onto celluloid film through a photochemical process and then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

Documentary film

documentarydocumentariesdocumentary series
Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens.
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document reality, primarily for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record.

Dubbing (filmmaking)

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Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages.
Dub localization, also often simply referred to as localization, is the practice of voice-over translation that alters a film or television series from one region of the world to the local language of another.

Film stock

filmmotion picture filmstock
The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures.
Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation.

Film director

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Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards and scores.
A film director is a person who directs the making of a film.

Translation

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Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages.
Except for some extreme metaphrasers in the early Christian period and the Middle Ages, and adapters in various periods (especially pre-Classical Rome, and the 18th century), translators have generally shown prudent flexibility in seeking equivalents—"literal" where possible, paraphrastic where necessary—for the original meaning and other crucial "values" (e.g., style, verse form, concordance with musical accompaniment or, in films, with speech articulatory movements) as determined from context.

Film score

film composerscorefilm music
Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards and scores.
A film score is original music written specifically to accompany a film.

Storyboard

animaticstoryboardsanimatics
Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, sets, costumes, production, direction, actors, audiences, storyboards and scores.
A storyboard is a graphic organizer that consists of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence.

Edison Studios

EdisonEdison CompanyEdison Manufacturing Company
The following year the company would begin Edison Studios, which became an early leader in the film industry with notable early shorts including The Kiss, and would go on to produce close to 1,200 films.
Edison Studios was an American film production organization, owned by companies controlled by inventor and entrepreneur, Thomas Edison.

Eadweard Muybridge

MuybridgeEadward MuybridgeEdweard Muybridge
The sensitivity was gradually improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first image sequences photographed in real-time.
Today, Muybridge is known for his pioneering work on animal locomotion in 1877 and 1878, which used multiple cameras to capture motion in stop-motion photographs, and his zoopraxiscope, a device for projecting motion pictures that pre-dated the flexible perforated film strip used in cinematography.

Mutoscope

projectorsThe Mutoscope
Some early films were made to be viewed by one person at a time through a "peep show" device such as the Kinetoscope and the mutoscope.
The Mutoscope was an early motion picture device, invented by W.K.L. Dickson and Herman Casler and later patented by Herman Casler on November 21, 1894.

Eidoloscope

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The first public screenings of films at which admission was charged were made in 1895 by the American Woodville Latham and his sons, using films produced by their Eidoloscope company, and by the – arguably better known – French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière with ten of their own productions.
The Eidoloscope was an early motion picture system created by Eugene Augustin Lauste, Woodville Latham and his two sons through their business, the Lambda Company, in New York City in 1894 and 1895.

Shot (filmmaking)

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The earliest films were simply one static shot that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques.

Soundtrack

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In the 1920s, the development of electronic sound recording technologies made it practical to incorporate a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen.
A soundtrack, also written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program, or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtrack of a film, video, or television presentation; or the physical area of a film that contains the synchronized recorded sound.

Théâtre Optique

Pantomimes LumineusesTheatre Optique
By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into the Theatre Optique that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen.
Reynaud's Théâtre Optique predated Auguste and Louis Lumière's first commercial, public screening of the cinematograph on 28 December 1895, which has long been seen as the birth of film.

Color motion picture film

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Another major technological development was the introduction of "natural color," which meant color that was photographically recorded from nature rather than added to black-and-white prints by hand-coloring, stencil-coloring or other arbitrary procedures, although the earliest processes typically yielded colors which were far from "natural" in appearance.
Color motion picture film refers both to unexposed color photographic film in a format suitable for use in a motion picture camera, and to finished motion picture film, ready for use in a projector, which bears images in color.

Feature film

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The pivotal innovation was the introduction of the three-strip version of the Technicolor process, first used for animated cartoons in 1932, then also for live-action short films and isolated sequences in a few feature films, then for an entire feature film, Becky Sharp, in 1935.
A feature film, feature-length film, or theatrical film is a film (also called a motion picture or movie) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program.

Sound effect

sound effectseffectsFX
In the 1920s, the development of electronic sound recording technologies made it practical to incorporate a soundtrack of speech, music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen.
In motion picture and television production, a sound effect is a sound recorded and presented to make a specific storytelling or creative point without the use of dialogue or music.

Blacksmith Scene

Blacksmithing Scene
The first kinetoscope film shown in public exhibition was Blacksmith Scene, produced by Edison Manufacturing Company in 1893.
Blacksmith Scene (also known as Blacksmith Scene #1 and Blacksmithing Scene) is an 1893 American short black-and-white silent film directed by William K.L. Dickson, the Scottish-French inventor who, while under the employ of Thomas Edison, developed the first fully functional motion picture camera.

Auguste and Louis Lumière

Lumière brothersLouis LumièreLumière
The first public screenings of films at which admission was charged were made in 1895 by the American Woodville Latham and his sons, using films produced by their Eidoloscope company, and by the – arguably better known – French brothers Auguste and Louis Lumière with ten of their own productions.
The cinématographe — a three-in-one device that could record, develop, and project motion pictures — was further developed by the Lumières.

Phi phenomenon

apparent motion.phi ("phenomenal") motion
The perception of motion is partly due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon.
This includes especially beta movement, which is important for the illusion of motion in cinema and animation.