Finance

financialfinancesfiscalfinancingfinancial managementFinancialsfinancial theoryfinancierfinance theoryfinancial sciences
Finance is the study of money and how it is used.wikipedia
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Financial capital

capitalfinance capitalfinancial
It deals with the questions of how an individual or company acquires the money needed - called capital in the company context - and how they then spend or invest that money.
Financial capital or just capital/equity in finance, accounting and economics, is internal retained earnings generated by the entity or funds provided by lenders (and investors) to businesses to purchase real capital equipment or services for producing new goods/services.

Corporate finance

business financefinancial managementCorporate
Finance is often split into three sub-categories: personal finance, corporate finance and public finance.
Corporate finance is an area of finance that deals with sources of funding, the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, and the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.

Investment

Investmentsinvestingcapital investment
It is a thus a field that is concerned with the investment of assets and liabilities over space and time, incorporating risk or uncertainty, and the time value of money; it can also be defined as the art of money management.
In finance, the benefit from an investment is called a return.

Bond (finance)

bondsbondbond issue
The second, "sources of capital" relates to how these investments are to be funded: investment capital can be provided through different sources, such as by shareholders, in the form of equity (privately or via an initial public offering), creditors, often in the form of bonds, and the firm's operations (cash flow).
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

Cash management

Banking Managementcash management accountsCash management systems
Short term financial management is often termed "working capital management", and relates to cash-, inventory- and debtors management.
Cash management refers to a broad area of finance involving the collection, handling, and usage of cash.

Financial risk

riskinvestment riskfinancial
Financial risk management, an element of corporate finance, is the practice of creating and protecting economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk, particularly credit risk and market risk.
Financial risk is any of various types of risk associated with financing, including financial transactions that include company loans in risk of default.

Volatility (finance)

volatilityvolatileprice volatility
(Other risk types include foreign exchange, shape, volatility, sector, liquidity, inflation risks, etc.) It focuses on when and how to hedge using financial instruments; in this sense it overlaps with financial engineering.
In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.

Financial engineering

financial engineerFinancial technologyfinancial engineers
(Other risk types include foreign exchange, shape, volatility, sector, liquidity, inflation risks, etc.) It focuses on when and how to hedge using financial instruments; in this sense it overlaps with financial engineering. In terms of practice, mathematical finance also overlaps heavily with the field of computational finance (also known as financial engineering).
Financial engineering is a multidisciplinary field involving financial theory, methods of engineering, tools of mathematics and the practice of programming.

Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
Financial risk management, an element of corporate finance, is the practice of creating and protecting economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk, particularly credit risk and market risk.
The major branches of management are financial management, marketing management, human resource management, strategic management, production management, operations management, service management, and information technology management.

Business administration

business managementadministrationadministrator
Finance is one of the most important aspects of business management and includes analysis related to the use and acquisition of funds for the enterprise.
From the point of view of management and leadership, it also covers fields that include accounting, finance, project management and marketing.

Financial modeling

financial modelfinancial modellingFinancial models
The discipline of capital budgeting may employ standard business valuation techniques or even extend to real options valuation; see Financial modeling. It centres on managing risk in the context of the financial markets, and the resultant economic and financial models.
Financial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model) of a real world financial situation.

Capital asset pricing model

CAPMCapital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)CAPM model
Here, the twin assumptions of rationality and market efficiency lead to modern portfolio theory (the CAPM), and to the Black–Scholes theory for option valuation; it further studies phenomena and models where these assumptions do not hold, or are extended.
In finance, the capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a model used to determine a theoretically appropriate required rate of return of an asset, to make decisions about adding assets to a well-diversified portfolio.

Valuation of options

option pricingoption pricing modeloption price
Here, the twin assumptions of rationality and market efficiency lead to modern portfolio theory (the CAPM), and to the Black–Scholes theory for option valuation; it further studies phenomena and models where these assumptions do not hold, or are extended.
In finance, a price (premium) is paid or received for purchasing or selling options.

Time value of money

Cumulative average returndiscounted future returnsearning potential of money over time
It is a thus a field that is concerned with the investment of assets and liabilities over space and time, incorporating risk or uncertainty, and the time value of money; it can also be defined as the art of money management.

Quantitative analyst

quantquantitative analysisquants
Arguably, these are largely synonymous, although the latter focuses on application, while the former focuses on modeling and derivation (see: Quantitative analyst).
A quantitative analyst (or, in financial jargon, a quant) is a person who specializes in the application of mathematical and statistical methods (mathematical finance) in finance.

Computational finance

Financial ComputingFinancial Engineering
In terms of practice, mathematical finance also overlaps heavily with the field of computational finance (also known as financial engineering).
Computational finance is a branch of applied computer science that deals with problems of practical interest in finance.

Outline of finance

List of finance topicsList of valuation topicsFinance
See Outline of finance: Mathematical tools; Outline of finance: Derivatives pricing.
Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.

Financial market

financial marketsmarketmarkets
It centres on managing risk in the context of the financial markets, and the resultant economic and financial models.

Economic model

modelmodelseconomic models
It centres on managing risk in the context of the financial markets, and the resultant economic and financial models.

Actuarial science

actuarialactuarial mathematicsactuarially
The field is largely focused on the modelling of derivatives, although other important subfields include insurance mathematics and quantitative portfolio problems.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.

Master of Finance

Master of Science in FinanceMaster in FinanceMSF
A Master's degree in Finance is a postgraduate program preparing graduates for careers in Finance.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Financial economics is the branch of economics studying the interrelation of financial variables, such as prices, interest rates and shares, as opposed to goods and services.
Financial economics or simply finance describes the allocation of financial resources.

Bank

Bankingbankerbanking system
The lender can find a borrower—a financial intermediary such as a bank—or buy notes or bonds (corporate bonds, government bonds, or mutual bonds) in the bond market.

Master of Business Administration

MBAM.B.A.Masters of Business Administration
The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business administration such as accounting, applied statistics, business communication, business ethics, business law, finance, managerial economics, management, entrepreneurship, marketing, supply-chain management, and operations management in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy.