Finance

financialfinancesfiscalfinancingfinancial managementfinancierfinance theoryfinancial theoryfinanciallyApplied Finance
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.wikipedia
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Rate of return

returnreturnsreturn on investment
Participants in the market aim to price assets based on their risk level, fundamental value, and their expected rate of return.
In finance, return is a profit on an investment.

Corporate finance

financial managementbusiness financefinance
Finance can be split into three sub-categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.
Corporate finance is an area of finance that deals with sources of funding, the capital structure of corporations, the actions that managers take to increase the value of the firm to the shareholders, and the tools and analysis used to allocate financial resources.

Investment

investmentsinvestingcapital investment
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
In finance, the benefit from investment is called a return.

Bond (finance)

bondsbondbond issue
The second, "sources of capital" relates to how these investments are to be funded: investment capital can be provided through different sources, such as by shareholders, in the form of equity (privately or via an initial public offering), creditors, often in the form of bonds, and the firm's operations (cash flow).
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

Cash management

Banking ManagementCash management systemscash-
Short term financial management is often termed "working capital management", and relates to cash-, inventory- and debtors management.
Cash management refers to a broad area of finance involving the collection, handling, and usage of cash.

Financial risk

riskinvestment riskfinancial
Financial risk management, an element of corporate finance, is the practice of creating and protecting economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk, particularly credit risk and market risk.
Financial risk is any of various types of risk associated with financing, including financial transactions that include company loans in risk of default.

Volatility (finance)

volatilityvolatileprice volatility
(Other risk types include foreign exchange, shape, volatility, sector, liquidity, inflation risks, etc.) It focuses on when and how to hedge using financial instruments; in this sense it overlaps with financial engineering.
In finance, volatility (symbol σ) is the degree of variation of a trading price series over time as measured by the standard deviation of logarithmic returns.

Financial engineering

financial engineerfinancial engineersfinancial technology
(Other risk types include foreign exchange, shape, volatility, sector, liquidity, inflation risks, etc.) It focuses on when and how to hedge using financial instruments; in this sense it overlaps with financial engineering. In terms of practice, mathematical finance also overlaps heavily with the field of computational finance (also known as financial engineering). Arguably, these are largely synonymous, although the latter focuses on application, while the former focuses on modelling and derivation (see: Quantitative analyst).
It has also been defined as the application of technical methods, especially from mathematical finance and computational finance, in the practice of finance.

Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
Financial risk management, an element of corporate finance, is the practice of creating and protecting economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk, particularly credit risk and market risk.
Financial services businesses include banks, brokerage firms, credit unions, credit cards, insurance companies, asset and investment companies such as private equity firms, private equity funds, real estate investment trusts, sovereign wealth funds, pension funds, mutual funds, index funds, and hedge funds, stock exchanges, and other companies that generate profits through investment and management of capital.

Business administration

business managementadministrationadministrator
Finance is one of the most important aspects of business management and includes analysis related to the use and acquisition of funds for the enterprise.
It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations, as well as related fields which include accounting, finance and marketing.

Financial modeling

financial modelfinancial modellingFinancial models
The discipline of capital budgeting may employ standard business valuation techniques or even extend to real options valuation; see Financial modeling. It centres on managing risk in the context of the financial markets, and the resultant economic and financial models.
Financial modeling is the task of building an abstract representation (a model) of a real world financial situation.

Valuation of options

option pricingoption pricing modeloption price
Here, the twin assumptions of rationality and market efficiency lead to modern portfolio theory (the CAPM), and to the Black–Scholes theory for option valuation; it further studies phenomena and models where these assumptions do not hold, or are extended.
In finance, a price (premium) is paid or received for purchasing or selling options.

Computational finance

financial engineeringfinancial computing
In terms of practice, mathematical finance also overlaps heavily with the field of computational finance (also known as financial engineering). Arguably, these are largely synonymous, although the latter focuses on application, while the former focuses on modelling and derivation (see: Quantitative analyst).
Computational finance is a branch of applied computer science that deals with problems of practical interest in finance.

Outline of finance

List of valuation topicsFinanceList of insurance topics
In investment management – in choosing a portfolio – one has to use financial analysis to determine what, how much and when to invest.
Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.

Financial market

financial marketsmarketmarkets
It centres on managing risk in the context of the financial markets, and the resultant economic and financial models.
Derivatives markets, which provide instruments for the management of financial risk.

Economic model

modelmodelseconomic models
It centres on managing risk in the context of the financial markets, and the resultant economic and financial models.
In finance predictive models have been used since the 1980s for trading (investment, and speculation), for example emerging market bonds were often traded based on economic models predicting the growth of the developing nation issuing them. Since the 1990s many long-term risk management models have incorporated economic relationships between simulated variables in an attempt to detect high-exposure future scenarios (often through a Monte Carlo method).

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Financial economics is the branch of economics studying the interrelation of financial variables, such as prices, interest rates and shares, as opposed to goods and services.
Financial economics or simply finance describes the allocation of financial resources.

Actuarial science

actuarialactuarial mathematicsactuarially
The field is largely focused on the modelling of derivatives, although other important subfields include insurance mathematics and quantitative portfolio problems.
Actuarial science is the discipline that applies mathematical and statistical methods to assess risk in insurance, finance and other industries and professions.

Master of Finance

MSFApplied FinanceMaster in Finance
Degrees: Master of Science in Finance (MSF), Master of Finance (M.Fin), Master of Financial Economics, Master of Applied Finance, Master of Liberal Arts in Finance (ALM.Fin)
A Master's degree in Finance is a postgraduate program preparing graduates for careers in Finance.

Master of Financial Economics

Financial Economics (MA)MFESpecialization Course in Financial Economics
Degrees: Master of Science in Finance (MSF), Master of Finance (M.Fin), Master of Financial Economics, Master of Applied Finance, Master of Liberal Arts in Finance (ALM.Fin)
A master's degree in Financial Economics provides a rigorous understanding of theoretical finance and the economic framework upon which that theory is based.

Bank

bankerbankingbanking system
The lender can find a borrower—a financial intermediary such as a bank—or buy notes or bonds (corporate bonds, government bonds, or mutual bonds) in the bond market.
Finance

Master of Business Administration

MBAM.B.A.EMBA
Business qualifications: Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Management (MM), Master of Commerce (M.Com), Master of Science in Management (MSM), Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)
The core courses in an MBA program cover various areas of business such as accounting, applied statistics, business communication, business ethics, business law, finance, managerial economics, management, entrepreneurship, marketing and operations in a manner most relevant to management analysis and strategy.

Behavioral economics

behavioral financebehavioural economicsbehavioral
Behavioral finance studies how the psychology of investors or managers affects financial decisions and markets when making a decision that can impact either negatively or positively on one of their areas.
They contend that behavioral finance is more a collection of anomalies than a true branch of finance and that these anomalies are either quickly priced out of the market or explained by appealing to market microstructure arguments.

Derivative (finance)

derivativesderivativefinancial derivatives
The field is largely focused on the modelling of derivatives, although other important subfields include insurance mathematics and quantitative portfolio problems.
In finance, a 'futures contract' (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized contract between two parties to buy or sell a specified asset of standardized quantity and quality for a price agreed upon today (the futures price) with delivery and payment occurring at a specified future date, the delivery date, making it a derivative product (i.e. a financial product that is derived from an underlying asset).

Master of Science in Management

MSMMMMMSc
Business qualifications: Master of Business Administration (MBA), Master of Management (MM), Master of Commerce (M.Com), Master of Science in Management (MSM), Doctor of Business Administration (DBA)
Finance