Financial transaction

Financial transaction involving money and agricultural goods at a farmers' market
Silver coin of the Maurya Empire, from the 3rd century BC.
Purchases can be made through the use of physical currency, such as cash.

Agreement, or communication, between a buyer and seller to exchange goods, services, or assets for payment.

- Financial transaction

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Online banking

A 1985 AT&T Home Banking console.
Five security token devices for online banking

Online banking, also known as internet banking, web banking or home banking, is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank or other financial institution to conduct a range of financial transactions through the financial institution's website.


Obligation that requires one party, the debtor, to pay money or other agreed-upon value to another party, the creditor.

Payday loan businesses lend money to customers, who then owe a debt to the payday loan company.
1979 U.S. Government $10,000 treasury bond

In financial accounting, debt is a type of financial transaction, as distinct from equity.


Legally enforceable agreement that creates, defines, and governs mutual rights and obligations among its parties.

Bill of sale of a male slave and a building in Shuruppak, Sumerian tablet, circa 2600 BC
The Carbolic Smoke Ball offer
A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins
German marriage contract, 1521 between {{Interlanguage link multi|Gottfried Werner von Zimmern|de}} and Apollonia von Henneberg-Römhild
Thomas Boylston to Thomas Jefferson, May 1786, Maritime Insurance Premiums
Fire insurance contract of 1796

The transfer of debt, which was "not permissible under Roman law but became widely practised in medieval Europe, especially in commercial transactions", was due to the large extent of the "trade conducted by the Italian cities with the Muslim world in the Middle Ages".


An 1874 newspaper illustration from Harper's Weekly showing a man engaging in barter by offering various farm produce in exchange for his yearly newspaper subscription.
Scandinavian and Russian traders bartering their wares. Olaus Magnus, 1555
'White traders bartering with the Indians' c. 1820
A 19th-century example of barter: A sample labor for labor note for the Cincinnati Time Store. Scanned from Equitable Commerce by Josiah Warren (1846)

In trade, barter (derived from baretor ) is a system of exchange in which participants in a transaction directly exchange goods or services for other goods or services without using a medium of exchange, such as money.


Decentralized digital currency that can be transferred on the peer-to-peer bitcoin network.

The start screen under Fedora Linux
Data structure of blocks in the ledger.
Simplified chain of ownership as illustrated in the bitcoin whitepaper. In practice, a transaction can have more than one input and more than one output.
Semi-log plot of relative mining difficulty
Total bitcoins in circulation.
Bitcoin price
Liquidity, semilogarithmic plot.
Electricity consumption of the bitcoin network since 2016 (annualized) and comparison with the electricity consumption of various countries in 2019. The upper and lower bounds (grey traces) are based on worst-case and best-case scenario assumptions, respectively. The red trace indicates an intermediate best-guess estimate. (data sources: Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index, US Energy Information Administration; for details, see methodology )
Bitcoin price in US dollars
Bitcoin vs fiat M1 and gold. Y axis represents number of bitcoins.

In 2010, the first known commercial transaction using bitcoin occurred when programmer Laszlo Hanyecz bought two Papa John's pizzas for ₿10,000 from Jeremy Sturdivant.

United States dollar

Official currency of the United States and several other countries.

Spanish silver eight-real or peso of 1768
Alexander Hamilton finalized the details of the 1792 Coinage Act and the establishment of the U.S. Mint.
Continental one third dollar bill (obverse)
Series of 1917 $1 United States Note
Gold double eagle ($20 coin), 1907
John Maynard Keynes (right) and Harry Dexter White at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund in 1946. They were instrumental in drafting the provisions of the post-war global financial system.
The Headquarters of the Federal Reserve System in Washington, D.C.
U.S. Consumer Price Index, starting from 1913

The United States Department of the Treasury exercises considerable oversight over the SWIFT financial transfers network, and consequently has a huge sway on the global financial transactions systems, with the ability to impose sanctions on foreign entities and individuals.


Trade involves the transfer of goods and services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.

Two traders in 16th century Germany
The San Juan de Dios Market in Guadalajara, Jalisco
The Liberty to Trade as Buttressed by National Law (1909) by George Howard Earle, Jr.
The caduceus, traditionally associated which Mercury (the Roman patron-god of merchants), continues in use as a symbol of commerce.
Ancient Etruscan "aryballoi" terracota vessels unearthed in the 1860s at Bolshaya Bliznitsa tumulus near Phanagoria, South Russia (formerly part of the Bosporan Kingdom of Cimmerian Bosporus, present-day Taman Peninsula); on exhibit at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg.
A map of the Silk Road trade route between Europe and Asia.
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Tajadero or axe money used as currency in Mesoamerica. It had a fixed worth of 8,000 cacao seeds, which were also used as currency.
A map showing the main trade routes for goods within late medieval Europe.
Danzig in the 17th century, a port of the Hanseatic League
Berber trade with Timbuktu, 1853.
A Roman denarius

Some trace the origins of commerce to the very start of transactions in prehistoric times.

Stavros Lambrinidis

Greek lawyer and politician who has served as the Ambassador of the European Union to the United States since March 2019.

Foreign Minister's Stavros Lambrinidis interview on BBC News in October 2011
Foreign Minister of Greece, Stavros Lambrinidis, with U.S. Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton joint press conference State Department October 2011
Greek Foreign Minister Lambrinidis with Egyptian Foreign Minister, Mohamed Kamel Amr during official 2011 visit to Cairo
Stavros Lambrinidis interview at the Kudlow Report CNBC
Stavros Lambrinidis in an interview at Citi FM during his visit to Ghana in July 2017 on human rights and democracy.
Lambrinidis speaks at the White House in 2019

He trained in International Trade, Transactions and Arbitration, as a colleague of Lloyd Cutler (founder of Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering in Washington, D.C. and law advisor of the White House during Jimmy Carter's and Bill Clinton's Presidencies).

Tobin tax

Originally defined as a tax on all spot conversions of one currency into another.

EU Financial transaction tax

The tax would only impact financial transactions between financial institutions charging 0.1% against the exchange of shares and bonds and 0.01% across derivative contracts.

Audit trail

Security-relevant chronological record, set of records, and/or destination and source of records that provide documentary evidence of the sequence of activities that have affected at any time a specific operation, procedure, event, or device.

Financial transaction involving money and agricultural goods at a farmers' market

Audit records typically result from activities such as financial transactions, scientific research and health care data transactions, or communications by individual people, systems, accounts, or other entities.