Finland

Finland on a medieval map, which is part of the Carta marina (1539)
Reconstruction of Stone Age dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu
Stone Age bear head gavel found in Paltamo, Kainuu.
An ancient Finnish man's outfit according to the findings of the Tuukkala Cemetery in Mikkeli, interpretation of 1889. The cemetery dates from the late 13th century to the early 15th century.
Late Iron Age swords found in Finland
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.
Dark green: Sweden proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions
Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th-century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.
Pioneers in Karelia (1900) by Pekka Halonen
White firing squad executing Red soldiers after the Battle of Länkipohja (1918)
Finnish military leader and statesman C. G. E. Mannerheim as general officer leading the White Victory Parade at the end of the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, 1918
J. K. Paasikivi and P. E. Svinhufvud, both at the time future presidents of the Republic of Finland, discuss the Finnish monarchy project in 1918.
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the World War II in Finland
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after World War II. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland (1956–1982)
Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Topographic map of Finland
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination "the land of a thousand lakes". Picture of Lake Pielinen in North Karelia.
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
Köppen climate classification types of Finland
The Parliament of Finland's main building along Mannerheimintie in Töölö, Helsinki
The Session Hall of the Parliament of Finland
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Martti Ahtisaari receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008
Finnish Leopard 2A4 tank Ps 273–106 in a combat demonstration at Comprehensive security exhibition 2015 in Tampere.
Sisu Nasu NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.
People gathering at the Senate Square, Helsinki, right before the 2011 Helsinki Pride parade started.
Angry Birds Land, a theme park in the Särkänniemi amusement park, in Tampere, Pirkanmaa; the mobile phone game Angry Birds, developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.
A treemap representing the exports of Finland in 2017
The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.
Supply of electricity in Finland
The Oasis of the Seas was built at the Perno shipyard in Turku.
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
Medieval old town in Porvoo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in summers for those who are fascinated by the old look.
The historical Tavastia Castle (or Häme Castle) in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper is located close to the Lake Vanajavesi.
Municipalities of Finland:
The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral
The Meilahti Tower Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) in Töölö, Helsinki
Development of life expectancy in Finland
Helsinki Central Library Oodi was chosen as the best new public library in the world in 2019
Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s
Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto
The library of the University of Eastern Finland in Snellmania, the Kuopio campus of the university
The sauna is strongly associated with Finnish culture
A smoke sauna in Ruka, Kuusamo
Mikael Agricola (1510–1557), Bishop of Turku, a prominent Lutheran Protestant reformer and the father of the Finnish written language
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku Art Museum
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a significant figure in the history of classical music.
Perttu Kivilaakso of Apocalyptica
The Finnish filmmakers Edvin Laine and Matti Kassila in 1955
Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (egg butter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.
Paavo Nurmi lights the 1952 Summer Olympics flame
Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won four world championships (1995, 2011, 2019 and 2022) and one Olympic gold medal (2022)
Kankkunen on the Laajavuori stage of the 2010 Rally Finland

Nordic country in Northern Europe.

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Fennoscandia

Areas in Southern Sweden with a Finnish-speaking population (2005)

Fennoscandia (Finnish, Swedish and Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия) or the Fennoscandian Peninsula is the geographical peninsula comprising the Scandinavian and Kola Peninsulas, mainland Finland, and Karelia.

Kauniainen

Lake Gallträsk
Kauniainen's commercial centre, where the old building from the 1960s to the right will be demolished
A road in Kauniainen during winter
Grani Shopping Centre (Kauppakeskus Grani) in Kauniainen
Kauniainen Town Hall
Kauniainen Stadium

Kauniainen (Grankulla) is a small town and a municipality of 0 inhabitants in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland.

Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland in 1914
Central Helsinki in 1820
The Grand Duchy of Finland in 1914
Fredrik Cygnaeus giving a speech at the Flora Day celebration on May 13, 1848. Author of the drawing is Alex Federley
Ball in Helsinki in honour of Alexander II, 1863
Managers and directors of Walkiakoski Oy, a sulphate pulp mill in Valkeakoski, 1899
Helsinki in 1907
The first session of the Parliament of Finland in 1907
Governor-General Bobrikov assassinated by Eugen Schauman on June 16, 1904, in Helsinki. A drawing of the assassination by an unknown author.
Map of Finland, about 1900. The map is in Russian and uses the Swedish place names written in Cyrillic.
Provinces of the Grand Duchy of Finland
Statue of Alexander II in Helsinki was built to commemorate his re-establishment of the Diet of Finland in 1863
A variant of the Finnish merchant flag, 1809–1821
A variant of the Finnish merchant flag used by the Swedish-speaking population, 1905
A Finnish-speaker version of the above flag
Folk musician Kreeta Haapasalo plays kantele in a Peasant Cottage (1868)

The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta; Storfurstendömet Finland; Великое княжество Финляндское, Velikoye knyazhestvo Finlyandskoye, all of which literally translate as Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.

Taiga

Biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces, and larches.

White spruce taiga in the Alaska Range, Alaska, United States
Siberian taiga
The taiga in the river valley near Verkhoyansk, Russia, at 67°N, experiences the coldest winter temperatures in the northern hemisphere, but the extreme continentality of the climate gives an average daily high of 22 C in July.
Boreal forest near Shovel Point in Tettegouche State Park, along the northern shore of Lake Superior in Minnesota.
Lakes and other water bodies are common in the taiga. The Helvetinjärvi National Park, Finland, is situated in the closed canopy taiga (mid-boreal to south-boreal) with mean annual temperature of 4 C.
Late September in the fjords near Narvik, Norway. This oceanic part of the forest can see more than 1,000 mm precipitation annually and has warmer winters than the vast inland taiga.
Yukon, Canada. Several of the world's longest rivers go through the taiga, including Ob, Yenisei, Lena, and Mackenzie.
Tukulan sandy area in the taiga of the Central Yakutian Lowland.
Boreal forest near Lake Baikal in Russia
Taiga spruce forest in the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Trees in this environment tend to grow closer to the trunk and not "bush out" in the normal manner of spruce trees.
Moss (Ptilium crista-castrensis) cover on the floor of taiga
Conifer cones and morels after fire in a boreal forest.
Brown bear, Kamchatka peninsula. Brown bears are among the largest and most widespread taiga omnivores.
The Funny River Fire in Alaska burned 193,597 acre, mostly Black spruce taiga
The Shanta Creek Fire began in a taiga area that had not had a major fire in over 130 years, and so was allowed to burn unchecked until it began to threaten populated areas.
Plesetsk Cosmodrome is situated in the taiga
Seney National Wildlife Refuge
Peat bog in Dalarna, Sweden. Bogs and peatland are widespread in the taiga. They are home to a unique flora, and store vast amounts of carbon. In western Eurasia, the Scots pine is common in the boreal forest.
The Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York form the southernmost part of the Eastern forest-boreal transition ecoregion, constituting part of the world’s taiga biome.

In Eurasia, it covers most of Sweden, Finland, much of Russia from Karelia in the west to the Pacific Ocean (including much of Siberia), much of Norway and Estonia, some of the Scottish Highlands, some lowland/coastal areas of Iceland, and areas of northern Kazakhstan, northern Mongolia, and northern Japan (on the island of Hokkaidō).

Baltic region

The terms Baltic Sea Region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries/states refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea, mainly in Northern and Eastern Europe.

Baltic Sea and surrounding countries
Lennart Meri, the President of Estonia, reconstructs the history of Estonia and the Baltic Sea region in his 1976 book Silver White (Hõbevalge).

The countries that have shorelines along the Baltic Sea: Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, and Sweden.

Finnish Civil War

Tampere's civilian buildings destroyed in the Civil War during the Battle of Tampere
A map of Russia's Grand Duchy of Finland from 1825. The map texts are in Russian and Swedish.
Tampere in 2015. The city was among ideological centres in the 1905 general strike and strategic strongholds of the Finnish Civil War.
A demonstration at Helsinki Senate Square. The mass meetings and local strikes of early 1917 escalated to a general strike in support of the Finnish state's power struggle and for increased availability of foodstuffs.
Russian soldiers in Helsinki. Prior to 1917, they sustained Finland's stability, after the February Revolution, the Russian troops became a source of social unrest.
Soldiers of the paramilitary White Guard in Leinola, a suburb of Tampere
Troops of the paramilitary Red Guard's Tampere company pictured in 1918
The Finnish Senate of 1917, Prime Minister P. E. Svinhufvud in the head of table.
The Bolsheviks' recognition of Finnish independence. Some minutes before midnight on 31 December 1917, two men with opposite worldviews, Svinhufvud and Lenin shook hands.
General C. G. E. Mannerheim in 1918, with a white armband showing the coat of arms of Finland
Kullervo Manner, chairman of the Finnish People's Delegation, and last commander-in-chief and also only prime minister of the Finnish Reds, pictured c. 1913–1915
The frontlines and initial offensives at the beginning of the war.
The main offensives until 6 April 1918. The Whites take Tampere and defeat the Finnish-Russian Reds at the Battle of Rautu, the Karelian Isthmus.
A Soviet armoured train, Partizan, which assisted the Red war effort in the Vyborg area.
Red Guard cavalry commander Verner Lehtimäki on his horse in 1918
The German Army's landings on the south coast and their operations. The Whites' decisive offensives in Karelia.
A 19-year-old (left) and a 27-year-old member of the Turku Female Red Guard. They were later executed in Lahti in May 1918.
White soldier from the Vaasa battalion.
Finnish Jägers in Vaasa, Finland, on 26 February 1918. The battalion is being inspected by White Commander-in-Chief C. G. E. Mannerheim.
German soldiers with an MG 08 machine gun in Helsinki after the surrender of the Red Guard headquarters in Smolna.
Unburied bodies of the Reds at Kalevankangas cemetery after the Battle of Tampere
A propaganda leaflet signed by General Mannerheim circulated by the Whites urging the Red defenders to surrender. [To the residents and troops of Tampere! Resistance is hopeless. Raise the white flag and surrender. The blood of the citizen has been shed enough. We will not kill like the Reds kill their prisoners. Send your representative with a white flag.]
Oskari Koivula (front), commander of the Red Guards of Hyvinkää, and Emil Ylén (left)
A White firing squad executing two Red soldiers in Kiviniemi, the Karelian Isthmus
Red Terror in April 1918: the Vyborg county jail massacre, where 30 White prisoners were killed
A prison camp for Red prisoners in Suomenlinna, Helsinki. Around 12,500 Red prisoners died in such camps due to malnutrition and disease.
The body of a young boy on Suvantokatu near the intersection of Aleksanterinkatu after the Battle of Tampere.
The Rump Parliament of Finland, Helsinki 1918. German army officers stand in the left corner. Social Democrat Matti Paasivuori is on the right, representing Finnish socialists alone.
Unveiling of Finland's Statue of Liberty in Vaasa on 9 July 1938, 20 years after the Civil War.
The Whites' Civil War memorial in Antrea (now Kamennogorsk, Russia)
A mass grave for Red soldiers and civilians in North Haaga, Helsinki
The White Army parade on Senate Square after the conquest of Helsinki on May 16, 1918

The Finnish Civil War was a civil war in Finland in 1918 fought for the leadership and control of the country between White Finland and the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic (Red Finland) during the country's transition from a grand duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.

Continuation War

Finnish soldiers at the VT-line of fortifications during the Soviet Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in June 1944
Finnish flags at half-mast in Helsinki on 13 March 1940 after the Moscow Peace Treaty became public
Vasilievsky Island in Saint Petersburg, pictured in 2017. During the Winter and Continuation Wars, Leningrad, as it was then known, was of strategic importance to both sides.
The geopolitical status in Europe in May 1941:Note how Finland is marked as a German ally.
Joachim von Ribbentrop (right) bidding farewell to Vyacheslav Molotov in Berlin on 14 November 1940 after discussing Finland's coming fate
Finnish, German and Soviet military formations at the start of the Continuation War in June and July 1941
A Bristol Blenheim bomber-aircraft belonging to the Finnish Air Force in March, 1944.
Finnish soldiers crossing the Murmansk railway in 1941
President Risto Ryti giving his famous radio speech about the Continuation War on June 26, 1941.
Subphases of the Finnish invasion of Karelia during the 1941 general offensive. The old 1939 border is marked in grey.
A Finnish military parade next to the Round Tower in Viipuri (now Vyborg, Russia) on 31 August 1941, celebrating its recapture
A Finnish soldier with a reindeer in Lapland. Reindeer were used in many capacities, such as pulling supply sleighs in snowy conditions.
Finnish soldiers crossing the 1940-agreed border (Moscow Peace Treaty) at Tohmajärvi on 12 July 1941, two days after the invasion started
A Soviet prisoner-of-war and a puppy pictured in August 1941 at Lupasalmi (Лубосалма) in Karelia
Finnish soldiers searching for remains of eventual victims at a burned-down house after a Soviet partisan attack on the village of Viianki, in Suomussalmi. The burnt bodies of over ten civilians, including women and children, were found.
The Soviets conducted four attacks in the first half of 1942, all of which were repelled by Finnish and German troops.
Keitel (left), Hitler, Mannerheim and Ryti meeting at Immola Airfield on 4 June 1942. Hitler made a surprise visit in honour of Mannerheim's 75th birthday and to discuss plans.
Soviet women having breakfast next to burning trash at a Finnish concentration camp in Petrozavodsk
Administrative map of Finland and occupied territories 1942–1944
Finnish soldiers in front of a field synagogue
Bombing destruction in Helsinki, the night of 6–7 February 1944.
Finnish soldiers carrying Panzerfäuste on their shoulders pass by the remains of a destroyed Soviet T-34 tank at the Battle of Tali-Ihantala
The front lines on 4 September 1944, when the ceasefire came into effect and two weeks before the war concluded
A Soviet (left) and a Finnish officer compare their watches on 4 September 1944 at Vyborg.
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union following the Moscow Armistice displayed in red
A memorial close to the Svir River in Russia with "The enemy was stopped here" ("Здесь был остановлен враг") written on it
A memorial stone in Utajärvi, Finland.

The Continuation War, also known as the Second Soviet-Finnish War, was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1944, as part of World War II.

Winter War

A Finnish Maxim M/09-21 machine gun crew during the Winter War
Geopolitical status in Northern Europe in November 1939
A Soviet propaganda postcard from 1940 saying "the fascist dog growls" in reference to the Finnish White Guard (Шюцкор), the paramilitary forces that had a role in defeating the socialist Reds during the Finnish Civil War.
The Soviet–Finnish Non-Aggression Pact was signed by Aarno Yrjö-Koskinen and Maxim Litvinov in Moscow 1932.
Rybachy Peninsula in 2008. The Soviet Union demanded for the peninsula, the northernmost point of Finland at the time, to be ceded, along with other areas, to protect Soviet assets.
Finnish soldiers gather breakfast from a field kitchen during "additional refresher training" at the Karelian Isthmus, on 10 October 1939.
29 November 1939, foreign journalists at Mainila, where a border incident between Finland and the Soviet Union escalated into the Winter War.
January 1940, Soldier from the Finnish People's Army.
Dense forests of Ladoga Karelia at Kollaa. A Soviet tank on the road in the background according to the photographer.
Offensives of the four Soviet armies from 30 November to 22 December 1939 displayed in red
Fire at the corner of Lönnrotinkatu and Abrahaminkatu Streets in Helsinki after Soviet aerial bombing of Helsinki on 30 November 1939
Vyacheslav Molotov signs an agreement between the Soviet Union and the Finnish Democratic Republic in front of Joseph Stalin in 1939. Otto Wille Kuusinen, the prime minister and head of the Terijoki government, on the right side of the picture, behind Molotov.
The situation on 7 December: Soviets have reached the Mannerheim Line on the Karelian Isthmus.
Soviet tracks at Kianta Lake, Suomussalmi during a Finnish pursuit in December 1939. Nordic combined skier Timo Murama is pictured.
Soviet T-26 Model 1937 "advancing aggressively", as described by the photographer, on the eastern side of Kollaa River during the battle of Kollaa
Simo Häyhä, the legendary Finnish sniper, known as "the White Death" by Soviets.
Battles in Ladoga Karelia, north of Lake Ladoga: the attack of the Soviet 8th Army was halted at the Finnish defensive line on 12 December 1939.
Dead Soviet soldiers and their equipment at Raate Road, Suomussalmi, after being encircled at the Battle of Raate Road
A Finnish soldier examines a Soviet tuba found among the many musical instruments that the destroyed 44th Division was carrying for a victory parade to be held in a vanquished Finland.
Soviet prisoners of war dressed with new clothes near the Arctic Circle at Rovaniemi in January 1940.
A Finnish soldier on guard near Kemijärvi in February 1940.
March 1940, a Finnish Bristol Blenheim Mk. IV bomber of the No. 44 Squadron refuelling at its air base on a frozen lake in Tikkakoski. On the fuselage is the swastika, which the Finnish Air Force had adopted as their symbol in 1918. Despite the likeness, it was not a Nazi design but was based on the personal owner; Eric von Rosen had donated the first aircraft to the Air Force.
Finnish officers inspecting Soviet skiing manuals gained as loot from the Battle of Suomussalmi
Situation on the Karelian Isthmus on 13 March 1940, the last day of the war
11:45 a.m. on 13 March 1940. Finnish soldiers retreating at Viipuri to the demarcation line.
Finland's territorial concessions to the Soviet Union displayed in red
Franco-British support was offered on the condition their forces could pass freely from Narvik through neutral Norway and Sweden instead of the difficult passage through Soviet-occupied Petsamo
Viipuri Cathedral was heavily damaged during the Winter War and never repaired. Viipuri itself was ceded to the Soviet Union.
A Winter War monument at Suomussalmi, Finland, containing a rock for every soldier who died at the Battle of Suomussalmi: 750 Finnish and an estimated 24,000 Soviet
The memorial stone for the soldiers of the Winter War and the Continuation War in Loppi, Finland
A monument devoted to the victims of the Soviet–Finnish War 1939–1940 in St. Petersburg
According to the 23 August 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)

The Winter War, also known as the First Soviet-Finnish War, was a war between the Soviet Union and Finland.

Subarctic climate

Climate characterised by long, cold (often very cold) winters, and short, warm to cool summers.

Subarctic climate worldwide
View of pines in the Kuysumy mountains in Siberia
Subarctic climate in Alaska, near Yukon

The northern inland regions of Fennoscandia (milder winters in coastal areas), including most of Finland and the Hardangervidda plateau

Finnish War

Fought between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire from 21 February 1808 to 17 September 1809.

Map of notable locations in Finland during the war
Finnish War, February 1808 at the outbreak of the war
Finnish War, March–May 1808
Finnish War, May–October 1808
Finnish War, Winter 1808 - Summer 1809
Arrest of Gustav IV.
Second to last battle of the war at Ratan near Umeå in Swedish Västerbotten
Finnish War, aftermath
A memorial of the Battle of Kutujoki in Suonenjoki, Finland

In Saint Petersburg, his stubbornness was viewed as a convenient pretext for Russia to occupy Finland, thus pushing the Russo-Swedish frontier considerably to the west of the Russian capital and safeguarding it in case of any future hostilities between the two powers.