A report on Sweden and Finland

A Vendel-era helmet, at the Swedish Museum of National Antiquities
Finland on a medieval map, which is part of the Carta marina (1539)
Viking expeditions (blue lines)
Reconstruction of Stone Age dwelling from Kierikki, Oulu
The Tjängvide image stone dating from 800 to 1099, example of Viking art
Stone Age bear head gavel found in Paltamo, Kainuu.
Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala), a site of religious and political importance in the early days of Sweden
An ancient Finnish man's outfit according to the findings of the Tuukkala Cemetery in Mikkeli, interpretation of 1889. The cemetery dates from the late 13th century to the early 15th century.
Skog tapestry, made most probably during the late 13th century.
Late Iron Age swords found in Finland
Gustav I liberated Sweden from Christian II of Denmark, ending the Kalmar Union. He established the House of Vasa which ruled Sweden and Poland until the 17th century
The Swedish Empire following the Treaty of Roskilde of 1658.
Dark green: Sweden proper, as represented in the Riksdag of the Estates. Other greens: Swedish dominions and possessions
Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631.
Now lying within Helsinki, Suomenlinna is a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of an inhabited 18th-century sea fortress built on six islands. It is one of Finland's most popular tourist attractions.
The Swedish Empire between 1611 and 1815, with its absolute peak between 1658 and 1660.
Pioneers in Karelia (1900) by Pekka Halonen
The Battle of Poltava in 1709. In the following years, Russia and her allies occupied all Swedish dominions on the Baltic coast and even Finland.
White firing squad executing Red soldiers after the Battle of Länkipohja (1918)
Illustration of starvation in northern Sweden, Famine of 1867–1869
Finnish military leader and statesman C. G. E. Mannerheim as general officer leading the White Victory Parade at the end of the Finnish Civil War in Helsinki, 1918
Swedish emigrants boarding ship in Gothenburg in 1905
J. K. Paasikivi and P. E. Svinhufvud, both at the time future presidents of the Republic of Finland, discuss the Finnish monarchy project in 1918.
A Swedish soldier during World War II. Sweden remained neutral during the conflict.
Finnish troops raise a flag on the cairn in April 1945 at the close of the World War II in Finland
Tage Erlander (left), Prime Minister under the ruling Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1946 to 1969.
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union after World War II. The Porkkala land lease was returned to Finland in 1956.
Sweden joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
Urho Kekkonen, the eighth president of Finland (1956–1982)
Second day of the Stockholm Husby riots. The picture shows three cars on fire in the Stockholm suburb of Husby, 20 May 2013
Finland joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
View of the Stora Sjöfallet National Park
Topographic map of Finland
Scania in southern Sweden
There are some 187,888 lakes in Finland larger than 500 square metres and 75,818 islands of over 0,5 km2 area, leading to the denomination "the land of a thousand lakes". Picture of Lake Pielinen in North Karelia.
Sandhamn island, Stockholm archipelago
The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is Finland's national animal. It is also the largest carnivore in Finland.
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the 0°C isotherm
Köppen climate classification types of Finland
Köppen climate classification types of Sweden using the -3°C isotherm
The Parliament of Finland's main building along Mannerheimintie in Töölö, Helsinki
Map of Sweden's five major vegetation zones
The Session Hall of the Parliament of Finland
The current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, and his consort, Queen Silvia
The Court House of the Supreme Court
Rosenbad, in central Stockholm, has been the seat of the Government since 1981.
Martti Ahtisaari receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 2008
The Riksdag chamber, at the time of a vote, in 2009
Finnish Leopard 2A4 tank Ps 273–106 in a combat demonstration at Comprehensive security exhibition 2015 in Tampere.
The party leaders lined up before the start of the televised live debate on 12 September 2014.
Sisu Nasu NA-110 tracked transport vehicle of the Finnish Army. Most conscripts receive training for warfare in winter, and transport vehicles such as this give mobility in heavy snow.
Municipal divisions of Sweden
People gathering at the Senate Square, Helsinki, right before the 2011 Helsinki Pride parade started.
Kingdoms of Svear (Sweonas) and Götar (Geats) in the 12th century, with modern borders in grey
Angry Birds Land, a theme park in the Särkänniemi amusement park, in Tampere, Pirkanmaa; the mobile phone game Angry Birds, developed in Finland, has become a commercial hit both domestically and internationally.
The Riksdag, the Swedish Parliament in 2014
A treemap representing the exports of Finland in 2017
Bonde Palace in Stockholm, seat of the Supreme Court of Sweden
The two existing units of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant. On the far left is a visualization of a third unit, which, when completed, will become Finland's fifth commercial nuclear reactor.
The EU parliament in Brussels. Sweden is a member state of the European Union.
Supply of electricity in Finland
Development aid measured in GNI in 2009. Source: OECD. As a percentage Sweden is the largest donor.
The Oasis of the Seas was built at the Perno shipyard in Turku.
The Saab JAS 39 Gripen is an advanced Swedish multi-role fighter aircraft of the Swedish Air Force.
Flags of the Nordic countries from left to right: Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark
The Infantry fighting vehicle CV90, which is produced and used by Sweden
Medieval old town in Porvoo is one of the most popular tourist destinations in summers for those who are fascinated by the old look.
Gross regional product (GRP) per capita in thousands of kronor (2014)
The historical Tavastia Castle (or Häme Castle) in Hämeenlinna, Tavastia Proper is located close to the Lake Vanajavesi.
A proportional representation of Sweden exports, 2019
Municipalities of Finland:
Sweden is home to Volvo Cars, an automobile company with its headquarters in Gothenburg
The Evangelical Lutheran Helsinki Cathedral
Real GDP growth in Sweden, 1996–2006
The Meilahti Tower Hospital, part of the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH) in Töölö, Helsinki
Sweden is part of the Schengen Area and the EU single market.
Development of life expectancy in Finland
Nordstan is one of the largest shopping malls in northern Europe
Helsinki Central Library Oodi was chosen as the best new public library in the world in 2019
Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, located south of Gothenburg
Pupils at the school of Torvinen in Sodankylä, Finland, in the 1920s
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö and Copenhagen in Denmark
Auditorium in Aalto University's main building, designed by Alvar Aalto
Stockholm Central Station
The library of the University of Eastern Finland in Snellmania, the Kuopio campus of the university
Alfred Nobel, inventor of dynamite and institutor of the Nobel Prize
The sauna is strongly associated with Finnish culture
Population density in the counties of Sweden.
A smoke sauna in Ruka, Kuusamo
Distribution of speakers of the Swedish language
Mikael Agricola (1510–1557), Bishop of Turku, a prominent Lutheran Protestant reformer and the father of the Finnish written language
The Protestant Katarina Church in Stockholm
Akseli Gallen-Kallela, The Defense of the Sampo, 1896, Turku Art Museum
The second oldest mosque in Sweden is the Malmö Mosque, inaugurated in 1984
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius (1865–1957) was a significant figure in the history of classical music.
Historical development of life expectancy in Sweden
Perttu Kivilaakso of Apocalyptica
Uppsala University (established 1477)
The Finnish filmmakers Edvin Laine and Matti Kassila in 1955
Nationalmuseum in Stockholm
Linus Torvalds, the Finnish software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
The Swedish band ABBA in April 1974, a few days after they won the Eurovision Song Contest
Karelian pasty (karjalanpiirakka) is a traditional Finnish dish made from a thin rye crust with a filling of rice. Butter, often mixed with boiled egg (egg butter or munavoi), is spread over the hot pastries before eating.
Paavo Nurmi lights the 1952 Summer Olympics flame
Kalmar Cathedral
Finland's men's national ice hockey team is ranked as one of the best in the world. The team has won four world championships (1995, 2011, 2019 and 2022) and one Olympic gold medal (2022)
Headquarters of Sveriges Television in Stockholm
Kankkunen on the Laajavuori stage of the 2010 Rally Finland
The writer and playwright August Strindberg
Walpurgis Night bonfire in Sweden
Cinnamon rolls originated in Sweden and Denmark.
Former World No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg
Former world No. 1 tennis player Björn Borg

It borders Norway to the west and north, Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge–tunnel across the Öresund.

- Sweden

It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south.

- Finland

42 related topics with Alpha


Map of the Baltic Sea region

Baltic Sea

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Map of the Baltic Sea region
Danish Straits and southwestern Baltic Sea
Åland between Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia
Cape Arkona on the island of Rügen in Germany, was a sacred site of the Rani tribe before Christianization.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League (Hanse).
In 1649 the settlement of the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spanned from Klaipėda to Gdańsk along the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Dano-Swedish War.
The burning Cap Arcona shortly after the attacks, 3 May 1945. Only 350 survived of the 4,500 prisoners who had been aboard
Baltic drainage basins (catchment area), with depth, elevation, major rivers and lakes
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Regions and basins of the Baltic Sea: 
1 = Bothnian Bay
2 = Bothnian Sea
1 + 2 = Gulf of Bothnia, partly also 3 & 4
3 = Archipelago Sea
4 = Åland Sea
5 = Gulf of Finland
6 = Northern Baltic Proper
7 = Western Gotland Basin
8 = Eastern Gotland Basin
9 = Gulf of Riga
10 = Bay of Gdańsk/Gdansk Basin
11 = Bornholm Basin and Hanö Bight
12 = Arkona Basin 6–12 = Baltic Proper
13 = Kattegat, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
14 = Belt Sea (Little Belt and Great Belt)
15 = Öresund (The Sound) 14 + 15 = Danish Straits, not an integral part of the Baltic Sea
Satellite image of the Baltic Sea in a mild winter
Traversing Baltic Sea and ice
On particularly cold winters, the coastal parts of the Baltic Sea freeze into ice thick enough to walk or ski on.
Piles of drift ice on the shore of Puhtulaid, near Virtsu, Estonia, in late April
Depths of the Baltic Sea in meters
Baltic Sea near Klaipėda (Karklė).
Skerries form an integral and typical part of many of the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea, such as these in the archipelago of Åland, Finland.
Stockholm archipelago
Aerial view of Bornholm, Denmark
Population density in the Baltic Sea catchment area
Vasilyevsky Island in Saint Petersburg, Russia
Stockholm in Sweden
Riga in Latvia
Helsinki in Finland
Gdańsk in Poland
Tallinn in Estonia
Satellite photo of the Baltic Sea surrounding Gotland, Sweden, with algae bloom (phytoplankton) swirling in the water
Pedestrian pier in Sellin, Germany
Svetlogorsk resort town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia
Mrzeżyno beach in Poland

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.


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Country in Northern Europe.

Country in Northern Europe.

Bronze Age stone-cist graves
Iron Age artefacts of a hoard from Kumna
Independent counties of Ancient Estonia in the beginning of the 13th century
Medieval Estonia and Livonia after the crusade
Kuressaare Castle in Saaremaa dates back to the 1380s
"Academia Dorpatensis" (now University of Tartu) was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus as the second university in the kingdom of Sweden. After the king's death it became known as "Academia Gustaviana".
Carl Robert Jakobson played a key role in the Estonian national awakening.
Declaration of Independence in Pärnu on 23 February 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Estonian armoured train during the Estonian War of Independence
According to the 23 August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact "the Baltic States (Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)" were divided into German and Soviet "spheres of influence" (German copy)
The Red Army troops crossing Soviet-Estonian border in October 1939 after Estonia had been forced to sign the Bases Treaty
The capital Tallinn after bombing by the Soviet Air Force during the war on the Eastern Front in March 1944
Estonian Swedes fleeing the Soviet occupation to Sweden (1944)
The blue-black-white flag of Estonia was raised again on the top of the Pikk Hermann tower on February 24, 1989.
Baltic Way in Estonia
The barn swallow (H. r. rustica) is the national bird of Estonia.
Estonia Endla Nature Reserve 07 Forest
Haanja Nature reserve where violations of Natura 2000 area logging is taking place.
The seat of the Parliament of Estonia in Toompea Castle
Building of the Supreme Court of Estonia in Tartu
US President Barack Obama giving a speech at the Nordea Concert Hall in Tallinn
Foreign ministers of the Nordic and Baltic countries in Riga, 2016
Estonian soldiers during a NATO exercise in 2015
KAPO (Kaitsepolitsei) headquarters in Kassisaba, Kesklinn, Tallinn
An Estonian Patria Pasi XA-180 in Afghanistan
Administrative divisions of Estonia
A proportional representation of Estonia exports, 2019
The central business district of Tallinn
Real GPD per capita development of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania
Estonia's GDP growth from 2000 till 2012
The oil shale industry in Estonia is one of the most developed in the world. In 2012, oil shale supplied 70% of Estonia's total primary energy and accounted for 4% of Estonia's gross domestic product.
Rõuste wind farm in Lääneranna Parish
Graphical depiction of Estonia's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories
Population of Estonia 1960–2019. The changes are largely attributed to Soviet immigration and emigration.
Estonian folk dancers
A Russian Old Believer village with a church on Piirissaar island
Ruhnu stave church, built in 1644, is the oldest surviving wooden building in Estonia
Distribution of Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The University of Tartu is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe and the highest-ranked university in Estonia. According to the Top Universities website, the University of Tartu ranks 285th in the QS Global World Ranking.
Building of the Estonian Students' Society in Tartu. It is considered to be the first example of Estonian national architecture. The Treaty of Tartu between Finland and Soviet Russia was signed in the building in 1920.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite.
The Estonian National Museum in Tartu.
The Estonian Song Festival is UNESCO's Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
Arvo Pärt was the world's most performed living composer from 2010 to 2018.
Jaan Kross is the most translated Estonian writer.
A traditional farmhouse built in the Estonian vernacular style
Mulgipuder, a national dish of Estonia made with potatoes, groats, and meat. It is very traditional food in the southern part of Estonia.
Tartu Ski Marathon in 2006

It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland across from Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea across from Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia.

Nordic countries

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The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or Norden; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic.

The Nordic countries (also known as the Nordics or Norden; lit. 'the North') are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic.

Nordic flags
Effigy of Queen Margaret, founder and ruler of the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union, c. 1400
Nordic prime ministers at the Nordic Council meeting in 2014 in Stockholm
Satellite map of the European part of the Nordic countries, except for Jan Mayen and Svalbard
The Öresund Bridge between Malmö in Sweden and Copenhagen in Denmark
Share of total area in the Nordic countries in 2012
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark
Average temperatures in the capitals of the Nordic countries in 2012
Signing the Helsinki Treaty in 1962
Nordic Council in session at the Parliament of Norway in 2007
Vigdís Finnbogadóttir served as the fourth President of Iceland from 1980 to 1996 and was the world's first democratically elected female head of state
Copenhagen Central Station with S-Trains
GDP per capita of the Nordic sovereign states in USD from 1990 to 2017
Statfjord oil platform in Norway is owned and operated by Equinor, which is the largest company in the Nordic countries
The Port of Gothenburg is the largest port in the Nordic countries.
During the recent years, Denmark has invested heavily in windfarms
Population density map of the Nordic countries (1996)
Historical reenactment of a farmer wedding in Jomala, Åland
Sami man at Honningsvåg, Norway, wearing the traditional Gákti
Faroese folk dancers in national costumes
ABBA is one of the best-selling music artists of all time
Søren Kierkegaard is considered to be the first existentialist philosopher
Swedish author Astrid Lindgren together with Finnish author Tove Jansson in Stockholm in 1958
Flag of Åland
Nordic countries (orange and red) and Scandinavian countries (red)
The Barents Region
A satellite photograph of Northern Europe
The North Germanic languages in the Nordic countries
The Finnic languages in Northern Europe
The Sami languages in Northern Europe
Share of total population of the Nordic countries by country in January 2013
Life expectancy at birth in the Nordic countries in 2012
Marriages and divorces in the Nordic countries in 2012
Immigrants in the Nordic countries in 2012
{{flagicon|DEN}} Vilhelm Hammershøi
{{flagicon|FIN}} Helene Schjerfbeck
{{flagicon|ISL}} Þórarinn B. Þorláksson
{{flagicon|NOR}} Edvard Munch
{{flagicon|SWE}} August Strindberg
{{flagicon|FAR}} Díðrikur á Skarvanesi
Vote percentage over time of the main social democratic parties in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway.
Labour Party (Norway)
Swedish Social Democratic Party 
Social Democrats (Denmark)
Social Democratic Party of Finland

It includes the sovereign states of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden; the autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland; and the autonomous region of Åland.


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Central Helsinki in 1820 before rebuilding. Illustration by Carl Ludvig Engel.
Construction of Suomenlinna began in the 18th century.
A map of Helsinki in 1645
Helsinki seen from Sentinel-2
Helsingin keskustaajama, an officially recognized urban area
A map of Helsinki's capital region (in orange) and its sub-regional municipalities (in light orange)
An aerial view of Malmi in the northern part of Helsinki
A statue of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, the Grand Duke of Finland, sculpted by Walter Runeberg and Johannes Takanen and erected in 1894 in front of the Helsinki Cathedral at the Senate Square in Helsinki. He was known as a well regarded emperor among the majority of Finns during the grand duchy times.
The Helsinki Cathedral is among the most prominent buildings in the city.
Hotel Kämp, the most luxurious hotel in Helsinki, located in Kluuvi
The Restaurant Kappeli from the 19th century in the Esplanadi Park
The view across Eläintarhanlahti in summertime
Casino Helsinki, a non-profit casino owned by government-owned Veikkaus, on Mikonkatu in the city center
The 134 m Majakka in Kalasatama has been built on top of the Redi shopping centre. It is currently Finland's tallest building.
The Helsinki City Hall houses the City Council of Helsinki.
Uspenski Cathedral.
Helsinki Synagogue in 2020
Kamppi Center, a shopping and transportation complex in Kamppi
Main building of the University of Helsinki as seen from the Senate Square.
Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences is the largest business polytechnic in Finland.
The Finnish National Theatre (1902), designed by architect Onni Tarjanne. In front of it, the memorial statue of Aleksis Kivi.
Havis Amanda, a fountain sculpture at the Helsinki Market Square
Strange Fruit performing at the Night of the Arts in Helsinki
Sanomatalo, a current office building of Sanoma Corporation
Café Ekberg, the oldest coffeehouse of Helsinki, along the Bulevardi in the Kamppi district
A terrace of the Restaurant Roslund at the Teurastamo area
The Helsinki Olympic Stadium was the centre of activities during the 1952 Summer Olympics.
Helsinki region roads
Old American cars assemble at the Market Square on the evening of the first Friday of every month
Central railway station, inaugurated 1919
The South Harbour
The Helsinki Metro with its characteristic bright orange trains is the world's northernmost subway.
A tram at the Esplanadi in Kaartinkaupunki, Helsinki
Karl Fazer, the chocolatier and Olympic sport shooter best known for founding the Fazer company
Erkki Karu, film director and producer
Tarja Halonen, former president of Finland
Kim Hirschovits, ice hockey player
Linus Torvalds, the software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Esa-Pekka Salonen, conductor and composer
Sinebrychoff Art Museum (1842)
Helsinki University Museum "Arppeanum" (1869)
The Cygnaeus Gallery Museum (1870)
The Mannerheim Museum (1874; 1957 as museum)
The Military Museum of Finland (1881)
Classical art museum Ateneum (1887)
The Design Museum (1894)
{{ill|Tram Museum|fi|Ratikkamuseo}} (Ratikkamuseo) (1900)
The National Museum of Finland (1910)
The Helsinki City Museum (1911)
The Finnish Museum of Natural History (1913)
Kunsthalle Helsinki art venue (1928)
Didrichsen Art Museum (1964)
Helsinki Art Museum (1968)
Kiasma museum of contemporary art (1998)
Amos Rex art museum (2018)

Helsinki ( or ; ; Helsingfors, ; Helsingia) is the capital, primate, and most populous city of Finland.

According to a theory presented in the 1630s, at the time of Swedish colonisation of coastal areas of Finland, colonists from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived at what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå ("Helsinge River"), which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s.


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Turku Cathedral, 1814, prior to the Great Fire in 1827
Great Fire of Turku, a painting by R. W. Ekman
A daguerreotype photograph of the Nobel House, the first photograph taken in Finland, from 1842
Aurakatu area in the 1910s
Aura River seen further away from central Turku
IV District, or Martti, is one of the smallest but most densely populated districts of Turku.
Area of Turku cathedral in autumn.
People celebrating Vappu in central Turku
MS Oasis of the Seas, formerly the world's largest passenger ship, was built in Turku.
Traditional Medieval Market of Turku in summer 2006.
Turku Cathedral, one of the most notable historical buildings in Finland.
Paavo Nurmi Marathon is run every summer.
The Turku Court of Appeal and Academy House of Turku
Turku City Hall, on the west side of the Aura River
Locomotives at Turku Central railway station
Viking Line's M/S Viking Grace on her in the Turku Archipelago.
VR Class Hv1 steam locomotive at Turku railway station in the 1920s
The main building of the University of Turku
Turku Main Library
President Mauno Koivisto

Turku ( ; Åbo, ; Aboa; Турку, formerly Або; Estonian: Turu) is a city and former capital on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi) and the former Turku and Pori Province (Turun ja Porin lääni; 1634–1997).

Turku is the oldest city in Finland, and served as the most important city of the eastern part of the Kingdom of Sweden (modern-day Finland).

Areas in Southern Sweden with a Finnish-speaking population (2005)

Finnish language

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Areas in Southern Sweden with a Finnish-speaking population (2005)
Birch bark letter no. 292 is the oldest known document in any Finnic language.
Mikael Agricola, a 19th-century drawing by Albert Edelfelt
Elias Lönnrot as depicted in a 19th-century caricature – Lönnrot made several journeys to Karelia and Eastern Finland to collect folklore, from which he compiled the Kalevala.
Map of Finnish dialects and forms of speech
The Turku dialect is famous for its seemingly inverted questions. For example, "Ei me mittä kaffelle men?" looks like it means "So we don't go for coffees?" but actually means "Shall we go for coffees?"
A sign in Savonian dialect: "You don't get cognac here, but proper wheat made buns and good strong Juhla Mokka-brand coffee you will have. Welcome."
Example of a participle construction
Suomalaisen Sana-Lugun Coetus (1745) by Daniel Juslenius was the first comprehensive dictionary of the Finnish language with 16,000 entries.
The first page of Abckiria (1543), the first book written in the Finnish language. The spelling of Finnish in the book had many inconsistencies: for example, the sound could be represented by c, k or even g; the long u and the long i were represented by w and ij respectively, and ä was represented by e.

Finnish (endonym: suomi or suomen kieli ) is a Uralic language of the Finnic branch, spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland.

In Sweden, both Finnish and Meänkieli (which has significant mutual intelligibility with Finnish ) are official minority languages.


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Detail of engraving of Stockholm from Suecia Antiqua et Hodierna by Erik Dahlbergh and Willem Swidde, printed in 1693
Panorama over Stockholm c. 1868 as seen from a hot air balloon
Stockholm in 1917
Stockholm City Centre after the 1960s
Satellite image of Stockholm in 2018 by ESA
The municipal council chamber (Rådssalen), inside Stockholm City Hall
Victoria Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Stockholm, located in Kista.
Headquarters of Ericsson
Stockholm School of Economics
Strandvägen as seen from the island of Djurgården
Djurgårdsbron bridge
Stockholm Public Library, designed by architect Gunnar Asplund
View of Stockholm from Avicii Arena
Söder Torn, an 86 m building in Södermalm
The main hall of the Vasa Museum with a scale model of Vasa as it might have looked on its maiden voyage to the left and the preserved ship itself to the right
Moragården, one of many historical homesteads at the Skansen open-air museum
Royal Dramatic Theatre, one of Stockholm's many theatres
Bookpublisher, Norstedt Building, seen from Vasabron, in Riddarholmen
Friends Arena
Scenes after Hammarby won their first national bandy title in 2010
Stockholm Marathon, near Kungsträdgården in 2008
Park on the island of Djurgården in central Stockholm
A southbound full-length (3 car) C20 metrotrain departing from the Gamla stan station
An A34 tram on line 7 at Djurgårdsbron
Norra länken (North link) motorway in Stockholm
A control point for the congestion charge leading up to Essingeleden
Viking Grace, one of many cruiseferries on the routes to Finland and Åland
Stockholm Central Station

Stockholm is the capital and largest city of Sweden as well as the largest urban area in Scandinavia.

For several hundred years, Stockholm was the capital of Finland as well (Tukholma), which then was a part of Sweden.

Finnic languages

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The Finnic (Fennic), or more precisely Balto-Finnic (Balto-Fennic; Baltic Finnic, Baltic Fennic) languages, constitute a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by the Baltic Finnic peoples.

The Finnic (Fennic), or more precisely Balto-Finnic (Balto-Fennic; Baltic Finnic, Baltic Fennic) languages, constitute a branch of the Uralic language family spoken around the Baltic Sea by the Baltic Finnic peoples.

There are around 7 million speakers who live mainly in Finland and Estonia.

Meänkieli and Kven are spoken in northern Sweden and Norway respectively and have the legal status of independent minority languages.


Sámi languages

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The Sami languages in Fennoscandia
Sami Primer, USSR 1933
A t-shirt for the Norwegian Labour Party. From top to bottom: Northern Saami, Lule Saami, and Southern Saami.
A trilingual road sign for Jokkmokk. From top to bottom: Swedish, Lule Saami, Northern Saami
A quadrilingual street sign in Inari in (from top to bottom) Finnish, Northern Saami, Inari Saami, and Skolt Saami. Inari is the only municipality in Finland with 4 official languages.
Sami speakers in Finland 1980-2010.
Sami languages and settlements in Russia:
Skolt (Russian Notozersky)
Akkala (Russian Babinsky)

Sámi languages, in English also rendered as Sami and Saami, are a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sámi people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden, and extreme northwestern Russia).


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Old Vaasa in the 1840s by Johan Knutsson
The Court of Appeal, nowadays the Church of Korsholm, survived the fire of 1852
The Jaeger Battallion on the city square of Vaasa in February 1918. The forces are being inspected by General Mannerheim.
The Vaskiluoto power stations in Vaskiluoto, Vaasa
Vaasa railway station
Vaasa University of Applied Sciences
Toivo Kuula

Vaasa (Vasa,, Sweden ), in the years 1855–1917 as Nikolainkaupunki (Nikolaistad; literally meaning "city of Nicholas), is a city on the west coast of Finland. It received its charter in 1606, during the reign of Charles IX of Sweden and is named after the Royal House of Vasa. Vaasa has a population of 0 (approximately 120,000 in the Vaasa sub-region), and is the regional capital of Ostrobothnia (Österbotten; Pohjanmaa). Vaasa is also well-known as a major university and college city in Finland.

The history of Korsholm and also of Vaasa begins in the 14th century, when seafarers from the coastal region in central Sweden disembarked at the present Old Vaasa, and the wasteland owners from Southwest Finland came to guard their land.