Fiqh

Islamic jurisprudencejurisprudenceIslamic lawjuristsjuristfaqihtraditional Islamic jurisprudenceIslamic (Shi’ite) jurisprudenceIslamic lawslaw
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence.wikipedia
1,215 Related Articles

Faqīh

faqihjuristfuqaha
A person trained in fiqh is known as a faqīh (plural fuqaha).
A faqīh (plural fuqahā, فقيه, pl. فقهاء) is an Islamic jurist, an expert in fiqh, or Islamic jurisprudence and Islamic Law.

Haram

haraamforbiddenḥarām
The historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God which concern the actions of persons who own themselves connected to obey the law respecting what is required (wajib), sinful (haraam), recommended (mandūb), disapproved (makrūh) or neutral (mubah)".
In Islamic jurisprudence, haram is used to refer to any act that is forbidden by Allah, and is one of five Islamic commandments (الأحكام الخمسة (al-ahkam al-khamsah)) that define the morality of human action.

Qiyas

analogical reasonqiyāsanalogy
The book details the four roots of law (Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the Qur'an and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from scientific study of the Arabic language.
In Islamic jurisprudence, qiyās is the process of deductive analogy in which the teachings of the hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur'an, in order to apply a known injunction (nass) to a new circumstance and create a new injunction.

Islam

IslamicMuslimMuslims
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence.
In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its scholarly interpretations.

Madhhab

madhabmadh'habschool
In the modern era, there are four prominent schools (madh'hab) of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two (or three) within Shi'a practice.
A (مذهب ', "way to act"; pl. مذاهب ', ) is a school of thought within fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence).

Istishab

Secondary sources of law were developed and refined over the subsequent centuries, consisting primarily of juristic preference (istihsan), laws of the previous prophets (shara man qablana), continuity (istishab), extended analogy (maslaha mursala), blocking the means (sadd al-dhari'ah), custome urf and saying of a companion (qawl al-sahabi).
Istishab is an Islamic term used in the jurisprudence to denote the principle of the presumption of continuity.

Hanafi

Hanafi schoolHanafiteḤanafī
The Hanafi school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

Ibn Khaldun

Ibn KhaldounIbn Khaldūna fourteenth century Muslim historian
The historian Ibn Khaldun describes fiqh as "knowledge of the rules of God which concern the actions of persons who own themselves connected to obey the law respecting what is required (wajib), sinful (haraam), recommended (mandūb), disapproved (makrūh) or neutral (mubah)".
He received a classical Islamic education, studying the Quran, which he memorized by heart, Arabic linguistics; the basis for understanding the Qur'an, hadith, sharia (law) and fiqh (jurisprudence).

Urwah ibn Zubayr

UrwaUrwa ibn al-ZubayrUrwah ibn al-Zubayr
Aisha also taught her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr.
'Urwah ibn al-Zubayr ibn al-'Awwam al-Asadi (عروة بن الزبير بن العوام الأسدي, died 713) was among the seven fuqaha (jurists) who formulated the fiqh of Medina in the time of the Tabi‘in and one of the Muslim historians.

Muwatta Imam Malik

Muwatta MalikMuwattaAl-Muwatta
Muwatta by Malik ibn Anas was written as a consensus of the opinion, of these scholars.
Malik's best-known work, Al-Muwatta was the first legal work to incorporate and join hadith and fiqh together (except possibly for Zayd ibn Ali's Musnad).

Malik ibn Anas

Imam MalikMalikMalik bin Anas
Muwatta by Malik ibn Anas was written as a consensus of the opinion, of these scholars.
Born in the city of Medina, Malik rose to become the premier scholar of prophetic traditions in his day, which he sought to apply to "the whole legal life" in order to create a systematic method of Muslim jurisprudence which would only further expand with the passage of time.

Al-Shafi‘i

Al-Shafi'iMuhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`iImam Shafi'i
Progress in theory and methodology happened with the coming of the early Muslim jurist Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767–820), who codified the basic principles of Islamic jurisprudence in his book ar-Risālah.
Often referred to as 'Shaykh al-Islām', al-Shāfi‘ī was one of the four great Imams, whose legacy on juridical matters and teaching eventually led to the Shafi'i school of fiqh (or Madh'hab).

Sunnah

SunnaSunnatprophetic tradition
The book details the four roots of law (Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the Qur'an and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from scientific study of the Arabic language. Fiqh is often described as the human understanding of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and His companions).
According to Islam Q&A website of Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid this second definition of sunna is used by "scholars of usool and fiqh" for acts that are “mustahabb (encouraged)”, in the five categories of Sharia rulings (known as “the five decisions” or five akram).

Quran

Qur'anKoranQur’an
The book details the four roots of law (Qur'an, Sunnah, ijma, and qiyas) while specifying that the primary Islamic texts (the Qur'an and the hadith) be understood according to objective rules of interpretation derived from scientific study of the Arabic language. Fiqh is often described as the human understanding of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and His companions).
In Islam, most intellectual disciplines, including Islamic theology, philosophy, mysticism and jurisprudence, have been concerned with the Quran or have their foundation in its teachings.

Companions of the Prophet

Sahabacompanioncompanions
The scholars appearing in the diagram below were taught by Muhammad's companions, many of whom settled in Madina.
From the traditions (hadith) of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life (sunnah), the code of conduct (sharia) it requires, and the jurisprudence (fiqh) by which Muslim communities should be regulated.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal

Ibn HanbalAhmad bin HanbalImam Ahmad
Ahmad ibn Hanbal was taught by Al-Shafi‘i.
Having studied fiqh and hadith under many teachers during his youth, Ibn Hanbal became famous in his later life for the crucial role he played in the Mihna, the inquisition instituted by the Abbasid Caliphate al-Ma'mun towards the end of his reign, in which the ruler gave official state support to the Mutazilite dogma of the Quran being created, a view that contradicted the orthodox doctrine of the Quran being the eternal, uncreated Word of God.

Mecelle

civil code of 1869–1876MejelleOttoman Law
It has been praised as the first successful attempt to render Hanafi fiqh into legal civil code comprehensible to the layperson and not just to scholars.

Principles of Islamic jurisprudence

Usul al-fiqhUsulUṣūl al-fiqh
The studies of fiqh, are traditionally divided into Uṣūl al-fiqh (principles of Islamic jurisprudence, lit. the roots of fiqh), the methods of legal interpretation and analysis; and Furūʿ al-fiqh (lit.
Principles of Islamic jurisprudence, also known as uṣūl al-fiqh (أصول الفقه, lit. roots of fiqh), are traditional methodological principles used in Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) for deriving the rulings of Islamic law (sharia).

Muamalat

muʿāmalātMu'amalatfiqh al-mu'amalat
Muamalat (also muʿāmalāt, معاملات, literally "transactions" or "dealings") is a part of Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh.

Sharia

Islamic lawSharia lawShariah
Fiqh is often described as the human understanding of the sharia, that is human understanding of the divine Islamic law as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah (the teachings and practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and His companions).
In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God's immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations.

Jurisprudence

Legal Studieslawjuridical
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence.

Islamic inheritance jurisprudence

inheritanceIslamic inheritanceinheritance laws
Islamic Inheritance jurisprudence is a field of Islamic jurisprudence that deals with inheritance, a topic that is prominently dealt with in the Qur'an.

Islamic economics

Islamic economic jurisprudenceIslamic financeEconomics
Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) has traditionally dealt with determining what is required, prohibited, encouraged, discouraged, or just permissible, according to the revealed word of God (Quran) and the religious practices established by Muhammad (sunnah).

Islamic military jurisprudence

Rules of war in Islammilitary conductin war
Islamic military jurisprudence refers to what has been accepted in Sharia (Islamic law) and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) by Ulama (Islamic scholars) as the correct Islamic manner which is expected to be obeyed by Muslims in times of war.

Urf

al-urflocal customʿUrf
Secondary sources of law were developed and refined over the subsequent centuries, consisting primarily of juristic preference (istihsan), laws of the previous prophets (shara man qablana), continuity (istishab), extended analogy (maslaha mursala), blocking the means (sadd al-dhari'ah), custome urf and saying of a companion (qawl al-sahabi).
When applied, it can lead to the deprecation or inoperability of a certain aspect of fiqh فقه (Islamic jurisprudence).