Firearm

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A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) designed for use by a single individual.wikipedia
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Gun barrel

barrelmuzzlebarrels
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) designed for use by a single individual.
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns.

Air gun

air rifleair pistolairgun
If gas pressurization is achieved through mechanical gas compression rather than through chemical propellant combustion, then the gun is technically an air gun, not a firearm.
An air gun (or airgun) is any kind of gun that launches projectiles pneumatically with compressed air or other gases that are pressurized mechanically without involving any chemical reactions, in contrast to a firearm, which pressurizes gases chemically via an exothermic oxidation of combustible propellants which generates propulsive energy by breaking molecular bonds.

Gun

gunsgunnery officerfirearms
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) designed for use by a single individual.
The means of projectile propulsion vary according to designs, but are traditionally effected by a high gas pressure contained within a shooting tube (gun barrel), produced either through the rapid combustion of propellants (as with firearms), or by mechanical compression (as with air guns).

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
The first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, which was later used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132. Older firearms typically used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants.
Because of its incendiary properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been widely used as a propellant in firearms, artillery, rockets, and fireworks, and as a blasting powder in quarrying, mining, and road building.

Smokeless powder

smokeless gunpowdersmokelesspowder
Older firearms typically used black powder as a propellant, but modern firearms use smokeless powder or other propellants.
Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the gunpowder or black powder they replaced.

Shotgun

shotguns12-gauge12 gauge
Most modern firearms (with the notable exception of smoothbore shotguns) have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability. These include handguns such as revolvers, pistols and derringers, and long guns such as rifles (of which there are many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles, designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons and light machine guns.
A shotgun (also known as a scattergun, or historically as a fowling piece) is a firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder, which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number of small spherical pellets called shot, or a solid projectile called a slug.

Rifling

rifledtwist raterifled gun
Most modern firearms (with the notable exception of smoothbore shotguns) have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
In firearms, rifling refers to the helical groovings that are machined into the internal (bore) surface of a gun's barrel, for the purpose of exerting torque and thus imparting a spin to a projectile around its longitudinal axis during shooting.

Caliber

calibrecalcalibres
Modern firearms can be described by their caliber (i.e. their bore diameter; this is given in millimeters or inches e.g. 7.5 mm, .357 in.) or in the case of shotguns by their gauge (e.g. 12 ga.); by the type of action employed (muzzleloader, breechloader, lever, bolt, pump, revolver, semi-automatic, fully automatic, etc.) together with the usual means of deportment (hand-held or mechanical mounting).
In guns, particularly firearms, caliber (or calibre in British English) is the specified nominal internal diameter of the gun barrel bore regardless of how or where the bore is measured and whether or not the finished bore matches that specification.

Ranged weapon

rangedranged weaponsprojectile weapon
A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) designed for use by a single individual.
After the invention of gunpowder and the development of firearms, gun-type pneumatic ranged weapons became the dominant weapon of choice in armed conflicts, even in close combat.

Hand cannon

hand cannonsgonnehand-cannon
In the 13th century the Chinese invented the metal-barrelled hand cannon, widely considered the true ancestor of all firearms.
The hand cannon (Chinese: 手銃), also known as the gonne or handgonne, is the first true firearm and the successor of the fire lance.

Gauge (firearms)

12 gaugegauge12-gauge
Modern firearms can be described by their caliber (i.e. their bore diameter; this is given in millimeters or inches e.g. 7.5 mm, .357 in.) or in the case of shotguns by their gauge (e.g. 12 ga.); by the type of action employed (muzzleloader, breechloader, lever, bolt, pump, revolver, semi-automatic, fully automatic, etc.) together with the usual means of deportment (hand-held or mechanical mounting).
The gauge (or commonly bore in British English) of a firearm is a unit of measurement used to express the inner diameter (bore diameter) of the barrel.

Smoothbore

smooth-boresmooth boresmoothbore gun
Most modern firearms (with the notable exception of smoothbore shotguns) have rifled barrels to impart spin to the projectile for improved flight stability.
Smoothbores range from handheld firearms to powerful tank guns and large artillery mortars.

Matchlock

matchlocksDoghead (firearms)gun
Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used (rifled) and to the barrel length (24 inch), to the firing mechanism (e.g. matchlock, wheellock, flintlock, percussion lock), to the design's primary intended use (e.g. hunting rifle), or to the commonly accepted name for a particular variation (e.g. Gatling gun).
The matchlock was the first mechanism invented to facilitate the firing of a hand-held firearm.

Flintlock

flintlock musketflintlock pistolflintlocks
Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used (rifled) and to the barrel length (24 inch), to the firing mechanism (e.g. matchlock, wheellock, flintlock, percussion lock), to the design's primary intended use (e.g. hunting rifle), or to the commonly accepted name for a particular variation (e.g. Gatling gun).
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism.

Wheellock

wheel-lockwheel lockflint wheel
Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used (rifled) and to the barrel length (24 inch), to the firing mechanism (e.g. matchlock, wheellock, flintlock, percussion lock), to the design's primary intended use (e.g. hunting rifle), or to the commonly accepted name for a particular variation (e.g. Gatling gun).
A wheellock, wheel-lock or wheel lock, is a friction-wheel mechanism to cause a spark for firing a firearm.

Iron sights

iron sightopen sightssights
Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights.
Iron sights are a system of shaped alignment markers (usually metal) used as a sighting device to assist in the aiming of a device such as a firearm, crossbow, or telescope, and exclude the use of optics as in reflector (reflex) sights, holographic sights, and telescopic sights.

Handgun

handgunspistolpistols
These include handguns such as revolvers, pistols and derringers, and long guns such as rifles (of which there are many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles, designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons and light machine guns.
A handgun is a short-barrelled firearm that can be held and used with one hand.

Telescopic sight

scopeoptical sightscopes
Shooters aim firearms at their targets with hand-eye coordination, using either iron sights or optical sights.
Telescopic sights are used with all types of systems that require accurate aiming but are most commonly found on firearms, particularly rifles.

Rifle

hunting rifleriflesrevolving rifle
These include handguns such as revolvers, pistols and derringers, and long guns such as rifles (of which there are many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles, designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons and light machine guns.
A rifle is a portable, long-barrelled firearm designed for accurate long-range shooting, to be held with both hands and braced against the shoulder for stability during firing, and with a barrel that has a helical pattern of grooves ("rifling") cut into the bore wall.

Long gun

long gunslongarmslong-gun
These include handguns such as revolvers, pistols and derringers, and long guns such as rifles (of which there are many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles, designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons and light machine guns.
A long gun is a category of firearms with longer barrels than most other types.

History of science and technology in China

ancient ChineseChinaChinese
The first primitive firearms originated in 10th-century China when bamboo tubes containing gunpowder and pellet projectiles were mounted on spears into the one-person-portable fire lance, which was later used as a shock weapon to good effect in the Siege of De'an in 1132.
For gunpowder weapons, it outlined the use of fire arrows and rockets, fire lances and firearms, land mines and naval mines, bombards and cannons, two stage rockets, along with different compositions of gunpowder, including 'magic gunpowder', 'poisonous gunpowder', and 'blinding and burning gunpowder' (refer to his article).

Squad automatic weapon

light support weaponSAWlight machine gun
These include handguns such as revolvers, pistols and derringers, and long guns such as rifles (of which there are many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles, designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons and light machine guns.
A squad automatic weapon (SAW), also known as a section automatic weapon or light support weapon (LSW), is a fully automatic firearm used to give infantry squads or sections a man-portable source of fully automatic firepower.

Personal defense weapon

PDWpersonal defence weaponPDWs
These include handguns such as revolvers, pistols and derringers, and long guns such as rifles (of which there are many subtypes such as anti-material rifles, sniper rifles, designated marksman rifles, battle rifles, assault rifles and carbines), shotguns, submachine guns, personal defense weapons, squad automatic weapons and light machine guns.
Personal defense weapons (PDWs) are a class of compact, selective fire, magazine-fed, submachine gun-like firearms—essentially a hybrid between a conventional submachine gun and a compact assault rifle.

Gatling gun

Gatling gunsGatlingGatling-type
Further classification may make reference to the type of barrel used (rifled) and to the barrel length (24 inch), to the firing mechanism (e.g. matchlock, wheellock, flintlock, percussion lock), to the design's primary intended use (e.g. hunting rifle), or to the commonly accepted name for a particular variation (e.g. Gatling gun).
Nonetheless, the Gatling gun represented a huge leap in firearm technology.

Browning Arms Company

BrowningBrowning pistolBrowning pistols
The world's top small arms manufacturing companies are Browning, Remington, Colt, Ruger, Smith & Wesson, Savage, Mossberg (USA), Heckler & Koch, SIG Sauer, Walther (Germany), ČZUB (Czech Republic), Glock, Steyr-Mannlicher (Austria), FN Herstal (Belgium), Beretta (Italy), Norinco (China), Tula Arms and Kalashnikov (Russia), while former top producers were Mauser, Springfield Armory, and Rock Island Armory under Armscor (Philippines).
The company offers a wide variety of firearms including shotguns, rifles, and pistols.