Firebombing

firebombedfirebombincendiary raidsfire bombingfire-bombedfirebombsfire bombfire-bombfire-bombingincendiary attacks
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.wikipedia
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Air raids on Japan

air raidsAllied air raidsAllied bombing
Most large German cities were extensively firebombed starting in 1942, and almost all large Japanese cities were firebombed during the last six months of World War II.
Despite the vulnerability of Japanese cities to firebombing attacks, the firefighting services lacked training and equipment, and few air raid shelters were constructed for civilians.

Bombing of Chongqing

ChongqingJapanese bombingbombing of Chongking
The Chinese wartime capital of Chongqing was firebombed by the Imperial Japanese starting in early 1939.
Two months later, after tens of thousands of deaths, in retaliation for firebombing, the United States embargoed the export of airplane parts to Japan, thus imposing its first economic sanction against that nation.

Magnesium

MgMg 2+ Mg2+
There were two types of incendiary bombs: those made of magnesium and iron powders, and those made of petroleum.
This property was used in incendiary weapons during the firebombing of cities in World War II, where the only practical civil defense was to smother a burning flare under dry sand to exclude atmosphere from the combustion.

Incendiary device

incendiary bombincendiary bombsincendiary
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.
The Nazi regime began the campaign of incendiary bombings at the start of World War II with the bombing of Warsaw, and continued with the London Blitz and the bombing of Moscow, among other cities.

Coventry Blitz

Coventrybombing of Coventryattack on Coventry
London, Coventry, and many other British cities were firebombed during the Blitz by Nazi Germany.
During the raid, the Germans dropped about 500 tonnes of high explosives, including 50 parachute air-mines, of which 20 were incendiary petroleum mines, and 36,000 incendiary bombs.

Strategic bombing

air raidair raidsterror bombing
Although simple incendiary bombs have been used to destroy buildings since the start of gunpowder warfare, World War I saw the first use of strategic bombing from the air to damage the morale and economy of the enemy, such as the German Zeppelin air raids conducted on London during the Great War.
Strategic bombing in Europe never reached the decisive completeness the American campaign against Japan achieved, helped in part by the fragility of Japanese housing, which was particularly vulnerable to firebombing through the use of incendiary devices.

Bombing of Tokyo (10 March 1945)

Operation MeetinghouseBombing of TokyoGreat Tokyo Air Raid
Changing to low-altitude night tactics to concentrate the fire damage while minimizing the effectiveness of fighter and artillery defenses, the Operation Meetinghouse raid carried out by 279 B-29s raided Tokyo again on the night of 9/10 March, dropped 1,665 tons of incendiaries from altitudes of 5000 to 9000 ft, mostly using the 500 lb E-46 cluster bomb which released 38 M-69 oil-based incendiary bombs at an altitude of 2500 ft. A lesser number of M-47 incendiaries was dropped: the M-47 was a 100 lb jelled-gasoline and white phosphorus bomb which ignited upon impact.
On the night of 9/10 March 1945 the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) conducted a devastating firebombing raid on Tokyo, the Japanese capital city.

Conflagration

firefiresblaze
The first to arrive dropped bombs in a large X pattern centered in Tokyo's working class district near the docks; later aircraft simply aimed near this flaming X. Approximately 15.8 sqmi of the city were destroyed and 100,000 people are estimated to have died in the resulting conflagration, more than the immediate deaths of either the atomic bombings of Hiroshima or Nagasaki.
Arson can be for fraud, murder, sabotage or diversion, or due to a person's pyromania (or firebombing in war).

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

atomic bombing of HiroshimaHiroshimabombing of Hiroshima
The first to arrive dropped bombs in a large X pattern centered in Tokyo's working class district near the docks; later aircraft simply aimed near this flaming X. Approximately 15.8 sqmi of the city were destroyed and 100,000 people are estimated to have died in the resulting conflagration, more than the immediate deaths of either the atomic bombings of Hiroshima or Nagasaki.
Under pressure from United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) headquarters in Washington, LeMay changed tactics and decided that low-level incendiary raids against Japanese cities were the only way to destroy their production capabilities, shifting from precision bombing to area bombardment with incendiaries.

Blockbuster bomb

blockbustersCookiecookies
The use of a mixture of bombers carrying high explosive bombs, such as the British blockbuster bombs, which blew out windows and roofs and exposed the interior of buildings to the incendiary bombs, is much more effective.

Tokyo: The Last War

Teito Taisendirect sequel
The sequel begins in 1945, during a period extensive of American firebombing over major Japanese cities.

Teito Monogatari

Teito GendanTeito Monogatari GaidenTeito Monogatari: Chapter 1
It reinvents major events such as the Great Kantō earthquake, the founding of Japan's first subway, the February 26 Incident, the firebombing raids, the signing of the 1960 US Security Pact, and the ritual suicide of Yukio Mishima.

Bombing of Tokyo

firebombing of TokyoBombing of Tokyo in World War IITokyo
The next mission was another high altitude daylight incendiary raid against Tokyo on 25 February when 172 B-29s destroyed around 643 acre of the snow-covered city, dropping 453.7 tons of mostly incendiaries with some fragmentation bombs.
The Bombing of Tokyo was a series of firebombing air raids by the United States Army Air Forces during the Pacific campaigns of World War II.

Japanese Village

Japanese
The purpose of the replicas of Japanese homes, which were repeatedly rebuilt after being intentionally burned down, was to perfect the use of incendiary bombing tactics, the fire bombing of Japanese cities during World War II.

Nagasaki

Nagasaki, JapanNagasaki, NagasakiNagasaki City
The first to arrive dropped bombs in a large X pattern centered in Tokyo's working class district near the docks; later aircraft simply aimed near this flaming X. Approximately 15.8 sqmi of the city were destroyed and 100,000 people are estimated to have died in the resulting conflagration, more than the immediate deaths of either the atomic bombings of Hiroshima or Nagasaki.
When the plane reached Kokura at 9:44 a.m. (10:44 a.m. Tinian Time), the city was obscured by clouds and smoke, as the nearby city of Yahata had been firebombed on the previous day - the steel plant in Yahata also had their workforce intentionally set fire to containers of coal tar, to produce target-obscuring black smoke.

M69 incendiary

M-69 Incendiary cluster bombM-69 incendiaryM-69 incendiary bomblets
Changing to low-altitude night tactics to concentrate the fire damage while minimizing the effectiveness of fighter and artillery defenses, the Operation Meetinghouse raid carried out by 279 B-29s raided Tokyo again on the night of 9/10 March, dropped 1,665 tons of incendiaries from altitudes of 5000 to 9000 ft, mostly using the 500 lb E-46 cluster bomb which released 38 M-69 oil-based incendiary bombs at an altitude of 2500 ft. A lesser number of M-47 incendiaries was dropped: the M-47 was a 100 lb jelled-gasoline and white phosphorus bomb which ignited upon impact.
The bombs were very effective in setting fire to Japanese civilian structures in mass firebombing raids starting in February 1945 against Kobe.

German Village (Dugway Proving Ground)

German VillageGerman
The purpose of the replicas of German homes, which were repeatedly rebuilt after being intentionally burned down, was to perfect tactics in the fire bombing of German residential areas during World War II.

The Blitz

BlitzLondon Blitzbombing of London
London, Coventry, and many other British cities were firebombed during the Blitz by Nazi Germany.
Probably the most devastating attack occurred on the evening of 29 December, when German aircraft attacked the City of London itself with incendiary and high explosive bombs, causing a firestorm that has been called the Second Great Fire of London.

Bomb

bombingbombingsbombs
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.

Fire

firesfire damageflame
Firebombing is a bombing technique designed to damage a target, generally an urban area, through the use of fire, caused by incendiary devices, rather than from the blast effect of large bombs.

Arson

arsonistarsonistsarson attack
This article is concerned with aerial incendiary bombing as a military tactic; for non-military (almost always criminal) acts, see arson.

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
Although simple incendiary bombs have been used to destroy buildings since the start of gunpowder warfare, World War I saw the first use of strategic bombing from the air to damage the morale and economy of the enemy, such as the German Zeppelin air raids conducted on London during the Great War.

Zeppelin

ZeppelinsdirigibleZeppelin airships
Although simple incendiary bombs have been used to destroy buildings since the start of gunpowder warfare, World War I saw the first use of strategic bombing from the air to damage the morale and economy of the enemy, such as the German Zeppelin air raids conducted on London during the Great War.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
London, Coventry, and many other British cities were firebombed during the Blitz by Nazi Germany.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
Most large German cities were extensively firebombed starting in 1942, and almost all large Japanese cities were firebombed during the last six months of World War II.