Firedamp

fire dampfire-dampmine gasmethane explosiongasgas from coal minesgases from coal mininginflammable gasits occurrencemethane gas
Firedamp is flammable gas found in coal mines.wikipedia
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Bituminous coal

black coalbituminouscoal
It is particularly found in areas where the coal is bituminous.
Within the coal mining industry, this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp, a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions.

Coal mining

coal minecollierycoal miner
Firedamp is flammable gas found in coal mines.
Firedamp explosions can trigger the much-more-dangerous coal dust explosions, which can engulf an entire pit.

Afterdamp

After dampafter-dampinhaling poisonous gases
Alongside firedamp, other damps include blackdamp (nonbreathable mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other gases), whitedamp (carbon monoxide and other gases produced by combustion), poisonous, explosive stinkdamp (hydrogen sulfide), with its characteristic "rotten egg" odour, and the insidiously lethal afterdamp (carbon monoxide and other gases) produced following explosions of firedamp or coal dust.
Afterdamp is the toxic mixture of gases left in a mine following an explosion caused by firedamp, which itself can initiate a much larger explosion of coal dust.

Blackdamp

black dampchokedampchoke damp
Alongside firedamp, other damps include blackdamp (nonbreathable mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other gases), whitedamp (carbon monoxide and other gases produced by combustion), poisonous, explosive stinkdamp (hydrogen sulfide), with its characteristic "rotten egg" odour, and the insidiously lethal afterdamp (carbon monoxide and other gases) produced following explosions of firedamp or coal dust.
The word damp is used in similar mining terms such as white damp, fire damp and stink damp.

Davy lamp

miner's lampminer's safety lampDavy
It caused many deaths in coal mines before the invention of the Geordie lamp and Davy lamp.
It was created for use in coal mines, to reduce the danger of explosions due to the presence of methane and other flammable gases, called firedamp or minedamp.

Geordie lamp

safety lampGeordie safety lampsminers' safety lamp
It caused many deaths in coal mines before the invention of the Geordie lamp and Davy lamp.
The Geordie lamp was a safety lamp for use in flammable atmospheres, invented by George Stephenson in 1815 as a miner's lamp to prevent explosions due to firedamp in coal mines.

Damp (mining)

coal dampdampDamps
Damps is the collective name given to all gases (other than air) found in coal mines in Great Britain.

Tyneside

TyneTyneside Built-up Area774,891
The Tyneside coal mines in England had the deadly combination of bituminous coal contaminated with pyrites, and there were a great number of deaths due to accidents caused by firedamp explosions, including 102 dead at Wallsend in 1835.
Tynesiders may have been given this name, a local diminutive of the name "George", because their miners used George Stephenson's safety lamp (invented in 1815 and called a "Georgie lamp") to prevent firedamp explosions, rather than the Davy lamp used elsewhere.

Safety lamp

safety lampsClannyClanny lamps
A great step forward in countering the problem of firedamp came when safety lamps, intended to provide illumination whilst being incapable of igniting firedamp, were brought forward by both George Stephenson and Sir Humphry Davy, in response to accidents such as the Felling mine disaster near Newcastle upon Tyne which killed 92 people on 25 May 1812.

Whitehaven

Whitehaven, EnglandHaig Pit, WhitehavenWellington Colliery, Whitehaven
The problem of firedamp in mines had been brought to the attention of the Royal Society by 1677, and in 1733 Sir James Lowther reported that as a shaft was being sunk for a new pit at Saltom near Whitehaven, a major release had taken place on breaking through a layer of black stone into a coal seam.
To counter the considerable danger of methane gas explosion, Carlisle Spedding invented a forerunner to the 'Safety Lamp', known as the Spedding Wheel or Steel Mill.

George Stephenson

StephensonGeorgeengineer
A great step forward in countering the problem of firedamp came when safety lamps, intended to provide illumination whilst being incapable of igniting firedamp, were brought forward by both George Stephenson and Sir Humphry Davy, in response to accidents such as the Felling mine disaster near Newcastle upon Tyne which killed 92 people on 25 May 1812.
A month before Davy presented his design to the Royal Society, Stephenson demonstrated his own lamp to two witnesses by taking it down Killingworth Colliery and holding it in front of a fissure from which firedamp was issuing.

Coalbed methane

coal seam gascoal bed methanecoal-bed methane
The presence of this gas is well known from its occurrence in underground coal mining, where it presents a serious safety risk.

Coal dust

pulverized coalcoalcoal dust explosion
The presence of coal dust in the air increased the risk of explosion with firedamp, and could cause explosions even in the absence of firedamp.
Such accidents were usually initiated by firedamp ignitions, the shock wave of which raised coal dust from the floor of the mine galleries to make an explosive mixture.

Mining accident

mine disasteraccidentmining accidents
Mining accidents can happen from a variety of causes, including leaks of poisonous gases such as hydrogen sulfide or explosive natural gases, especially firedamp or methane, dust explosions, collapsing of mine stopes, mining-induced seismicity, flooding, or general mechanical errors from improperly used or malfunctioning mining equipment (such as safety lamps or electrical equipment).

Gresford disaster

A major explosiongas explosionGresford
Lying east of the Bala Fault, the mine was extremely dry, unlike mines to the west of the fault, and was therefore prone to firedamp.

Sir James Lowther, 4th Baronet

James LowtherSir James LowtherJames
The problem of firedamp in mines had been brought to the attention of the Royal Society by 1677, and in 1733 Sir James Lowther reported that as a shaft was being sunk for a new pit at Saltom near Whitehaven, a major release had taken place on breaking through a layer of black stone into a coal seam.
The Newcastle Courant thought the celebrations fully justified; because of the scale of the undertaking ('the Attempt being generous and great': a shaft twelve foot by ten had been sunk seventy-seven fathoms (the deepest a pit had been sunk in any part of Europe) to a three-yard thick coal seam (the Main Band) in twenty-three months, using thirty barrels of gunpowder, and without any loss of life or limb by the workforce); because of the difficulties overcome ( which "would have discourag'd all common Undertakers" (a "blower" of firedamp had been encountered at forty-two fathoms) but had been overcome by the 'unparallel'd Conduct and Skill of Sir James Lowther's Managers, Messieurs John and Carlisle Spedding'); but above all 'The perfecting of this costly Undertaking renders a universal Joy to the Inhabitants...; because the consequence is such as makes certain a valuable Colliery for many Generations'.

Udston mining disaster

The Udston mining disaster occurred in Hamilton, Scotland on Saturday, 28 May 1887 when 73 miners died in a firedamp explosion at Udston Colliery.

Abercarn colliery disaster

Abercarn mining disastercatastrophic explosionGreatest mining disaster in Monmouthshire, 1878
The cause was assumed to have been the ignition of firedamp by a safety lamp.

Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry DavyDavySir Humphry Davy, Bt
A great step forward in countering the problem of firedamp came when safety lamps, intended to provide illumination whilst being incapable of igniting firedamp, were brought forward by both George Stephenson and Sir Humphry Davy, in response to accidents such as the Felling mine disaster near Newcastle upon Tyne which killed 92 people on 25 May 1812.
The Revd Dr Robert Gray of Bishopwearmouth in Sunderland, founder of the Society for Preventing Accidents in Coalmines, had written to Davy suggesting that he might use his 'extensive stores of chemical knowledge' to address the issue of mining explosions caused by firedamp, or methane mixed with oxygen, which was often ignited by the open flames of the lamps then used by miners.

Gas

gasesgaseousgaseous state
Firedamp is flammable gas found in coal mines.

Methane

methane gasCH 4 liquid methane
It is the name given to a number of flammable gases, especially methane.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
Alongside firedamp, other damps include blackdamp (nonbreathable mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other gases), whitedamp (carbon monoxide and other gases produced by combustion), poisonous, explosive stinkdamp (hydrogen sulfide), with its characteristic "rotten egg" odour, and the insidiously lethal afterdamp (carbon monoxide and other gases) produced following explosions of firedamp or coal dust.

Whitedamp

White damp
Alongside firedamp, other damps include blackdamp (nonbreathable mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other gases), whitedamp (carbon monoxide and other gases produced by combustion), poisonous, explosive stinkdamp (hydrogen sulfide), with its characteristic "rotten egg" odour, and the insidiously lethal afterdamp (carbon monoxide and other gases) produced following explosions of firedamp or coal dust.

Hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulphideH 2 SStink damp
Alongside firedamp, other damps include blackdamp (nonbreathable mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapour, and other gases), whitedamp (carbon monoxide and other gases produced by combustion), poisonous, explosive stinkdamp (hydrogen sulfide), with its characteristic "rotten egg" odour, and the insidiously lethal afterdamp (carbon monoxide and other gases) produced following explosions of firedamp or coal dust.