First-past-the-post voting

first past the postfirst-past-the-postFPTPfirst-past-the-post voting systemplurality (first past the post)first-past-the-post systemhighest number of votesfirst past the post systemfirst past the post electoral systemfirst-past-the-post electoral system
A first-past-the-post (FPTP; sometimes FPP, or winner takes all) electoral system is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.wikipedia
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Plurality voting

majority votefirst past the postsingle-member
First-past-the-post voting is a plurality voting method.
In a system based on single-member districts, it may be called first-past-the-post (FPTP), single-choice voting, simple plurality or relative/simple majority.

Electoral Reform Society

Electoral Reform ServicesProportional Representation SocietyE'''lectoral '''R'''eform Services
The Electoral Reform Society is a political pressure group based in the United Kingdom that advocates abolishing the first-past-the-post method (FPTP) for all elections.
It seeks to replace the first-past-the-post voting system with one of proportional representation, advocating the single transferable vote.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of CommonsBritish House of CommonsCommons
Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved.

Tactical voting

strategic votingvote tacticallystrategically
To a greater extent than many others, the first-past-the-post method encourages tactical voting.
For example, in the first-past-the-post election, voters may vote for an option they perceive as having a greater chance of winning over an option they prefer (e.g., voting for an uncontroversial moderate candidate over a controversial extremist candidate in order to help defeat a popular candidate of an opposing party).

Proportional representation

proportional representation systemproportionalproportional voting
Supporters also argue that electoral systems using proportional representation (PR) often enable smaller parties to become decisive in Parliament, thus gaining disproportionate leverage.
His district boundaries follow historical county and local authority boundaries, yet he achieves more uniform representation than does the Boundary Commission, the body responsible for balancing the UK's first-past-the-post constituency sizes.

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
In the U.S., all the states (except Maine) and the District of Columbia use a winner-take-all form of simple plurality, first-past-the-post voting, to appoint the electors of the Electoral College; Maine and Nebraska use a variation where the electoral vote of each Congressional district is awarded by first-past-the-post, in addition to the statewide winner taking two votes.
The voting systems used across the nation are: first-past-the-post in single-member districts, and multiple non-transferable vote in multi-member districts.

Two-party system

two party systemmajority partytwo major parties
Duverger's law is an idea in political science which says that constituencies that use first-past-the-post methods will lead to two-party systems, given enough time.
In such arrangements, two-party systems are thought to result from various factors like winner-takes-all election rules.

Liberal Democrats (UK)

Liberal DemocratsLiberal DemocratLib Dem
The party calls for constitutional reform, including a transition from the first-past-the-post voting system to proportional representation.

Duverger's law

tendencytwo party system which first past the post rewards
Duverger's law is an idea in political science which says that constituencies that use first-past-the-post methods will lead to two-party systems, given enough time.
In political science, Duverger's law holds that plurality-rule elections (such as first past the post) structured within single-member districts tend to favor a two-party system, whereas "the double ballot majority system and proportional representation tend to favor multipartism".

Puerto Rico

Puerto RicanCommonwealth of Puerto RicoPuerto Rica
In Puerto Rico, there has been a tendency for Independentista voters to support Populares candidates.

Electoral system

multi-membervoting systemvoting systems
A first-past-the-post (FPTP; sometimes FPP, or winner takes all) electoral system is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
There are many variations in electoral systems, but the most common systems are first-past-the-post voting, the two-round (runoff) system, proportional representation and ranked voting.

Instant-runoff voting

alternative votepreferential votinginstant run-off voting
Winston Churchill criticised the electoral outcomes of the alternative vote as "determined by the most worthless votes given for the most worthless candidates." Examples include preferential voting systems, such as instant runoff voting, as well as the two-round system of runoffs and less tested methods such as approval voting and Condorcet methods.
In such cases, IRV chooses the same winner as first-past-the-post voting.

Safe seat

safestrongholdsafest seats
First-past-the-post within geographical areas tends to deliver (particularly to larger parties) a significant number of safe seats, where a representative is sheltered from any but the most dramatic change in voting behaviour.
In countries that do not apply the first past the post system, many of which equally operate a geographic division-based system, selected or party sub-nominated candidates can be allocated a safer or more tenuous list position.

Spoiler effect

spoilerspoiler candidatespoiling
Proponents of other voting methods in single-member districts argue that these would reduce the need for tactical voting and reduce the spoiler effect.
With a first-past-the-post voting system, this is particularly feasible where a spoiler candidate recommends tactical voting or runs on a false manifesto to bolster the prospects of their secretly preferred winning candidate.

Federal Senate

SenatorSenateSenators
Elections are held under the first-past-the-post and block voting systems.

Approval voting

ApprovalBlock approval votingAppr­oval
Examples include preferential voting systems, such as instant runoff voting, as well as the two-round system of runoffs and less tested methods such as approval voting and Condorcet methods.
Approval voting also can be used in social scenarios as a fairer, but still quick system compared to a First-Past-The-Post equivalent, being able to avoid a spoiler effect while being very quick to calculate

Condorcet method

Condorcet votingCondorcet methodsCondorcet
Examples include preferential voting systems, such as instant runoff voting, as well as the two-round system of runoffs and less tested methods such as approval voting and Condorcet methods.
While any Condorcet method will elect Nashville as the winner, if instead an election based on the same votes were held using first-past-the-post or instant-runoff voting, these systems would select Memphis and Knoxville respectively.

Single-member district

single-member districtssingle-member constituenciessingle-member
Proponents of other voting methods in single-member districts argue that these would reduce the need for tactical voting and reduce the spoiler effect. FPTP is a common, but not universal, feature of electoral systems with single-member electoral divisions, and is practised in close to one third of countries.
Called Duverger's law, this principle has also been empirically supported by the cube rule, which shows how the winning party in a first-past-the-post system is mathematically over-represented in the final chamber of representatives.

Scotland

Scottish🏴󠁧󠁢󠁳󠁣󠁴󠁿Scots
The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature with 129 members (MSPs): 73 of them represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first-past-the-post system; the other 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system.

Gerrymandering

gerrymandergerrymanderedgerrymanders
Through gerrymandering, electoral areas are designed deliberately to unfairly increase the number of seats won by one party, by redrawing the map such that one party has a small number of districts in which it has an overwhelming majority of votes, and many districts where it is at a smaller disadvantage.
After two elections under that system, [[House of Commons (Method of Voting and Redistribution of Seats) Act (Northern Ireland) 1929|in 1929]] Stormont changed the electoral system to be the same as the rest of the United Kingdom: a single-member first past the post system.

Bangladesh

People's Republic of BangladeshBangladeshiBangla Desh
It has 350 Members of Parliament (MPs), including 300 MPs elected on the first past the post system and 50 MPs appointed to reserved seats for women's empowerment.

Antigua and Barbuda

AntiguanAntiguaAntigua & Barbuda
The bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (17 members appointed by members of the government and the opposition party, and approved by the Governor-General), and the House of Representatives (17 members elected by first past the post) to serve five-year terms.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
Elections to the European Parliament began in 1979, and were held under the first past the post system until 1999, when a form of proportional representation was introduced.

Malaysia

Federation of MalaysiaMalaysianMalaya
The parliament follows a multi-party system and the government is elected through a first-past-the-post system.

Single transferable vote

proportionallysingle transferable ballotHare-Clark
Advocates for STV say that this form of voting enables votes to be cast for individual candidates rather than for parties and party machine-controlled party lists, and – compared to first-past-the-post voting – reduces "wasted" votes (votes being wasted on losers and surplus votes being wasted on sure winners) by transferring them to other preferred candidates.