First Boer War

FirstBoer WarFirst Anglo-Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarBoer campaign of 1842–3Boer War of 1881British annexation of 1877expedition against the Transvaal BoersFirst Anglo-Boer War;First Boer
The First Boer War (Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally "First Freedom War"), also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal Republic; not to be confused with the modern-day Republic of South Africa).wikipedia
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South African Republic

TransvaalTransvaal RepublicZuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
The First Boer War (Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally "First Freedom War"), also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal Republic; not to be confused with the modern-day Republic of South Africa).
The country defeated the British in what is often referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British.

South Africa

🇿🇦South AfricanRepublic of South Africa
The First Boer War (Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally "First Freedom War"), also known as the First Anglo-Boer War, the Transvaal War or the Transvaal Rebellion, was a war fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881 between the United Kingdom and the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal Republic; not to be confused with the modern-day Republic of South Africa).
The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions.

Paul Kruger

KrugerPresident KrugerPresident Paul Kruger
The Transvaal Boers, led by Paul Kruger (the future Transvaal President), thereafter elected to deal first with the perceived Zulu threat to the status quo, and local issues, before directly opposing the British annexation.
He became the leading figure in the movement to restore the South African Republic's independence, culminating in the Boers' victory in the First Boer War of 1880–81.

Henry Bartle Frere

Sir Bartle FrereSir Henry Bartle FrereBartle Frere
In September 1878, on his return from his second visit, Kruger met the British representatives, Sir Bartle Frere and Lieutenant General Frederic Thesiger (shortly to inherit the title of Lord Chelmsford), in Pietermaritzburg, in order to update them on the progress of the talks.
However, as High Commissioner for Southern Africa (1877-1880), he implemented a policy which attempted to impose a British confederation on the region and which led to the overthrow of the Cape's first elected government in 1878 and to a string of regional wars, culminating in the invasion of Zululand (1879) and the First Boer War (1880-1881).

Pretoria

Pretoria, GautengPretoria, South AfricaSilverton
The Boers revolted on 16 December 1880 and took action at Bronkhorstspruit against a British column of the 94th Foot, who were returning to reinforce Pretoria.
During the First Boer War, the city was besieged by Republican forces in December 1880 and March 1881.

British Army

ArmyBritishBritish troops
This led to the action at Bronkhorstspruit on 20 December 1880, where the Boers ambushed and destroyed a British Army convoy.
Among these actions were the Seven Years' War, the American Revolutionary War, the Napoleonic Wars, the First and Second Opium Wars, the Boxer Rebellion, the New Zealand Wars, the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the first and second Boer Wars, the Fenian raids, the Irish War of Independence, interventions in Afghanistan (intended to maintain a buffer state between British India and the Russian Empire) and the Crimean War (to keep the Russian Empire at a safe distance by aiding Turkey).

Boer Republics

Boer RepublicrepublicBoer
a series of Boer republics expanding into territories north of the British sphere of influence in the Cape
These two countries continued to exist for several decades, despite the First Boer War with Britain.

Natal Field Force

field forceSouth African Field Force
Consequently, at Newcastle, near the Transvaal border, he mustered a relief column (the Natal Field Force) of available men, although this amounted to only 1,200 troops.
The Natal Field Force (NFF) was a multi-battalion field force originally formed by Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley in Natal for the First Boer War.

Siege of Lydenburg

besiege Lydenburgbesiegedsiege
By 6 January 1881, Boers had begun to besiege Lydenburg.
The Siege of Lydenburg was a siege carried out by the Boer Republic of Transvaal on Lydenburg, modern day South Africa, between January and March 1881 during the First Boer War.

Battle of Schuinshoogte

Schuinshoogtebattlebattle of Ingogo
The three main engagements of the war were all within about sixteen miles of each other, centred on the Battles of Laing's Nek (28 January 1881), Ingogo River (8 February 1881) and the rout at Majuba Hill (27 February 1881).
Battle of Schuinshoogte, also known as Battle of Ingogo, was fought north of Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal, on 8 February 1881 during the First Boer War.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
This defeat had such an impact that during the Second Boer War, one of the British slogans was "Remember Majuba."
The conflict is commonly referred to as the Boer War, since the First Boer War (December 1880 to March 1881) was a much smaller conflict.

Battle of Majuba Hill

Majuba HillMajubaBattle of Majuba
The three main engagements of the war were all within about sixteen miles of each other, centred on the Battles of Laing's Nek (28 January 1881), Ingogo River (8 February 1881) and the rout at Majuba Hill (27 February 1881).
The Battle of Majuba Hill (near Volksrust, South Africa) on 27 February 1881 was the final and decisive battle of the First Boer War.

Battle of Laing's Nek

Laing's NekLaings NekLang's Nek
The Battle of Laing's Nek would be the last occasion where a British regiment carried its official regimental colours into battle.
The Battle of Laing's Nek was a major battle fought at Laing's Nek during the First Boer War on 28 January 1881.

Piet Joubert

Commandant-General JoubertCommandant-General Piet JoubertGeneral Joubert
Its leader, Commandant Frans Joubert, (brother of General Piet Joubert), ordered Anstruther and the column to turn back, stating that the territory was now again a Boer Republic and therefore any further advance by the British would be deemed an act of war.
Instead of accepting the lucrative post offered him, he took a leading part in creating and directing the agitation which led to the First Boer War (1880–1881), eventually becoming, as commandant-general of the Boer forces, a member of the triumvirate that administered the provisional Boer government set up in December 1880 at Heidelberg.

Pretoria Convention

Pretoria Convention of 1881regains independence
In the final peace treaty, the Pretoria Convention, negotiated by a three-man Royal Commission, the British agreed to complete Boer self-government in the Transvaal under British suzerainty.
The Pretoria Convention was the peace treaty that ended the First Boer War (16 December 1880 to 23 March 1881) between the Transvaal Boers and the United Kingdom.

Potchefstroom

Potchefstroom, South AfricaPotchefstroom CampusPotchefstroom, North West, South Africa
After the Transvaal formally declared independence from the United Kingdom, the war began on 16 December 1880 with shots fired by Transvaal Boers at Potchefstroom. The other five forts, with a minimum of fifty miles between any two, were at Wakkerstroom and Standerton in the south, Marabastad in the north and Potchefstroom and Rustenburg in the west.
On 16 December 1880, the First Boer War began when the Boers laid siege to the old fort.

Siege of Marabastad

besiege Marabastad fort
Boers begun to besiege Marabastad fort on 29 December 1880.
It took place during the First Boer War, during which Boer forces besieged several British garrisons across the country.

Standerton

Sakhile
The other five forts, with a minimum of fifty miles between any two, were at Wakkerstroom and Standerton in the south, Marabastad in the north and Potchefstroom and Rustenburg in the west.
During the First Boer War a British garrison in the town was besieged by the Boers for three months.

Bronkhorstspruit

The Boers revolted on 16 December 1880 and took action at Bronkhorstspruit against a British column of the 94th Foot, who were returning to reinforce Pretoria.
On 20 December 1880 it was the scene of the action at Bronkhorstspruit, an important event in the early days of the First Boer War when a Boer Commando ambushed a British army column, 94th Regiment of Foot, near the present town en route from Lydenburg to Pretoria.

Newcastle, KwaZulu-Natal

NewcastleNewcastle, Colony of Natal
Consequently, at Newcastle, near the Transvaal border, he mustered a relief column (the Natal Field Force) of available men, although this amounted to only 1,200 troops.
The town was used as a depot by the British during both the First and Second Boer War.

94th Regiment of Foot

94th Foot94th Regiment94th
The Boers revolted on 16 December 1880 and took action at Bronkhorstspruit against a British column of the 94th Foot, who were returning to reinforce Pretoria.
It was during the re-concentration of the companies, in response to outbreaks of civil disorder by the Boers, that A and F companies were attacked at Battle of Bronkhorstspruit in December 1880 in the opening clash of the First Boer War: the two companies saw 156 of their soldiers killed or wounded, with the rest taken prisoner.

London Convention (1884)

London ConventionLondon Convention of 1884convention of 1884
The Pretoria Convention was superseded in 1884 by the London Convention which provided for similar complete self-government, although still with British control of foreign relations.
The treaty governed the relations between the ZAR and the United Kingdom, following the retrocession of the South African Republic in the aftermath of the First Boer War.

Lydenburg

Lydenburg RepublicLijdenburgLydenburg, Mpumalanga, South Africa
They housed some 2,000 troops between them, including irregulars with as few as fifty soldiers at Lydenburg in the east which Anstruther had just left.
The First Boer War broke out between Britain and the Transvaal Republic in 1880.

Piet Cronjé

CronjeGeneral CronjeGeneral Cronjé
Born in the Cape Colony but raised in the South African Republic, Cronjé made his reputation in the First Boer War, besieging the British garrison at Potchefstroom.

Anglo-Zulu War

Zulu WarZulu WarsZulu
The British consolidated their power over Natal, the Zulu kingdom and the Transvaal in 1879 after the Anglo-Zulu War.
First Boer War