First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovakFirst Republic of CzechoslovakiaFirst RepublicRepublic of CzechoslovakiaCzecho-Slovak RepublicCzechoslovakianFirst1918–1938
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic (První Republika), was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938, dominated by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks, the country was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Československo), a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states.wikipedia
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Moravia

Habsburg MoraviaMoravianMorava
It was composed of the territories of Austria-Hungary, having different system of administration of the former respective Austrian (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) and Hungarian territories (mostly Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia).
During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.

Carpathian Ruthenia

TranscarpathiaSubcarpathian RusSubcarpathian Ruthenia
It was composed of the territories of Austria-Hungary, having different system of administration of the former respective Austrian (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) and Hungarian territories (mostly Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia). It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Zaolzie region in Silesia to Poland.
In the interwar period, it was part of the First and Second Czechoslovak Republic.

Munich Agreement

Munich CrisisMunich ConferenceSudeten Crisis
Under pressure from its Sudeten German minority, supported by neighbouring Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia was forced to cede its Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement.
It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory" of Czechoslovakia.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechCzechoslovakian
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic (První Republika), was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938, dominated by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks, the country was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Československo), a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states. Following the Anschluss of Nazi Germany and Austria in March 1938, the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's next target for annexation was Czechoslovakia.

Zaolzie

a part of CzechoslovakiaAnnexation of Zaolzieannexed by Poland
It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Carpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Zaolzie region in Silesia to Poland.
Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

Tomáš MasarykT. G. MasarykThomas Garrigue Masaryk
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk had been recognized by World War I Allies as the leader of the Provisional Czechoslovak Government, and in 1920 he was elected the country's first president.
With the help of the Allied Powers, Masaryk gained independence for a Czechoslovak Republic as World War I ended in 1918.

Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
Under pressure from its Sudeten German minority, supported by neighbouring Nazi Germany, Czechoslovakia was forced to cede its Sudetenland region to Germany on 1 October 1938 as part of the Munich Agreement. Following the Anschluss of Nazi Germany and Austria in March 1938, the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's next target for annexation was Czechoslovakia.
The Republic of Czechoslovakia was home to a substantial minority of Germans, who lived mostly in the Sudetenland.

Pětka

The leaders of these parties became known as the "Pětka" (''pron.
The Pětka or Committee of Five was an unofficial, informal, extra-parliamentary semi-constitutional political forum designed to cope with political difficulties during the First Republic of Czechoslovakia.

Czech Social Democratic Party

ČSSDSocial Democratic PartySocial Democrats
After the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of the First World War, the party became one of the leading parties of the first Czechoslovak Republic.

Anschluss

annexation of AustriaAnschlußannexation
Following the Anschluss of Nazi Germany and Austria in March 1938, the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's next target for annexation was Czechoslovakia.
At the conference, Hitler stated that economic problems were causing Germany to fall behind in the arms race with Britain and France, and that the only solution was to launch in the near-future a series of wars to seize Austria and Czechoslovakia, whose economies would be plundered to give Germany the lead in the arms race.

Parliamentary republic

parliamentaryrepublicceremonial presidency
After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only de facto functioning democracy in Central Europe, organized as a parliamentary republic.

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCzechoslovak Communist PartyCommunist
The party was one of some twenty political parties that competed within the democratic framework of the First Czechoslovak Republic, but it was never in government.

Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920

1920 ConstitutionConstitutionCzechoslovak Constitution
The full boundaries of the country and the organization of its government was finally established in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920.
A typical Chamber of Deputies during the First Republic had well over 10 factions represented.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarian Kingdom
It was composed of the territories of Austria-Hungary, having different system of administration of the former respective Austrian (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) and Hungarian territories (mostly Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia).
The main beneficiaries were Romania, the newly formed states of Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but Austria, Poland and Italy also gained smaller territories.

Universal suffrage

universal adult suffrageuniversal franchiseuniversal male suffrage
The Czechoslovak state was conceived as a parliamentary democracy, guided primarily by the National Assembly, consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, whose members were to be elected on the basis of universal suffrage.

Little Entente

Ententeneighbouring countriesmain ally
He negotiated the Little Entente (an alliance with Yugoslavia and Romania) in 1921 to counter Hungarian revanchism and Habsburg restoration.
The Little Entente was an alliance formed in 1920 and 1921 by Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia with the purpose of common defense against Hungarian revanchism and the prospect of a Habsburg restoration.

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic (První Republika), was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938, dominated by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks, the country was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Československo), a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states.
During the First Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938), although "Czechoslovak" was designated as the republic's official language, both Czech and Slovak written standards were used.

Slovaks

SlovakSlovakianSlovak nation
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika), often colloquially referred to as the First Republic (První Republika), was the first Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938, dominated by ethnic Czechs and Slovaks, the country was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Československo), a compound of Czech and Slovak; which gradually became the most widely used name for its successor states.

Austria-Hungary

Austro-Hungarian EmpireAustro-HungarianAustria–Hungary
It was composed of the territories of Austria-Hungary, having different system of administration of the former respective Austrian (Bohemia, Moravia, a small part of Silesia) and Hungarian territories (mostly Upper Hungary and Carpathian Ruthenia). It had inherited 70 to 80% of all the industry of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the porcelain and glass industries and the sugar refineries; more than 40% of all its distilleries and breweries; the Škoda Works of Pilsen (Plzeň), which produced armaments, locomotives, automobiles, and machinery; and the chemical industry of northern Bohemia.
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.

Antonín Švehla

Antonin Svehla
The Pětka was headed by Antonín Švehla, who held the office of prime minister for most of the 1920s and designed a pattern of coalition politics that survived until 1938.
He is regarded as one of the most important political figures of the First Czechoslovak Republic; he was the leader of the Agrarian Party, which was dominant within the Pětka, which was largely his own invention.

Škoda Works

ŠkodaSkodaSkoda Works
It had inherited 70 to 80% of all the industry of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the porcelain and glass industries and the sugar refineries; more than 40% of all its distilleries and breweries; the Škoda Works of Pilsen (Plzeň), which produced armaments, locomotives, automobiles, and machinery; and the chemical industry of northern Bohemia.
Following the emergence of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918, in the complex economic conditions of post-war Europe the company was transformed from what was exclusively an arms manufacturer into a multi-sector concern.

Sudeten German Party

Sudeten German National Socialist PartySudetendeutsche ParteiSudetendeutsche Heimatfront
Due to Czechoslovakia's centralized political structure, nationalism arose in the non-Czech nationalities, and several parties and movements were formed with the aim of broader political autonomy, like the Sudeten German Party led by Konrad Henlein and the Hlinka's Slovak People's Party led by Andrej Hlinka.
The Sudeten German Party (Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on 1 October 1933, some months after the First Czechoslovak Republic had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP).

Ferdinand Peroutka

Peroutka, Ferdinand
A prominent political thinker and journalist during the First Czechoslovak Republic, Peroutka was persecuted by the Nazi regime for his democratic convictions and imprisoned at Buchenwald concentration camp.

Rusyns and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

Ruthenians and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)a large number of Ukrainians who escaped the warRuthenians and Ukrainians
Rusyns and Ukrainians in Czechoslovakia during the period from 1918 to 1938, were ethnic Rusyns and ethnic Ukrainians of the First Czechoslovak Republic, representing two main ethnic communities in the most eastern region of Czechoslovakia, known during that period as the Subcarpathian Rus.

List of presidents of Czechoslovakia

President of CzechoslovakiaPresidentPresident of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic
The President of Czechoslovakia (Prezident Československa, Prezident Česko-Slovenska) was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.