First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovakFirst RepublicCzecho-Slovak RepublicCzechoslovakianFirstinterwar CzechoslovakiaRepublic of Czechoslovakia1918–1938
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938.wikipedia
638 Related Articles

Moravia

MoravaMoravianMähren
It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia.
During the early 20th century, Moravia was one of the five lands of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1928; it was then merged with Czech Silesia, and eventually dissolved by abolition of the land system in 1949.

Zaolzie

a part of CzechoslovakiaAnnexation of Zaolzieannexed by Poland
It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Zaolzie region in Silesia to Poland.
Zaolzie is the Polish name for an area now in the Czech Republic which was disputed between interwar Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
The First Czechoslovak Republic (První československá republika, Prvá česko-slovenská republika) was the Czechoslovak state that existed from 1918 to 1938. Following the Anschluss of Nazi Germany and Austria in March 1938, the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's next target for annexation was Czechoslovakia.
1918–1920: Republic of Czechoslovakia (abbreviated ČSR)/Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia

Pětka

The leaders of these parties became known as the "Pětka" (''pron.
The Pětka or Committee of Five was an unofficial, informal, extra-parliamentary semi-constitutional political forum designed to cope with political difficulties during the First Republic of Czechoslovakia.

Czech Social Democratic Party

ČSSDSocial Democratic PartySocial Democrats
The Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party was considerably weakened when the communists seceded in 1921 to form the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, but by 1929 it had begun to regain its strength. A party of moderation, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party declared in favor of parliamentary democracy in 1930. Antonín Hampl was chairman of the party, and Ivan Dérer was the leader of its Slovak branch.
After the collapse of Austria-Hungary at the end of the First World War, the party became one of the leading parties of the first Czechoslovak Republic.

Anschluss

annexation of Austriaannexationannexed
Following the Anschluss of Nazi Germany and Austria in March 1938, the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler's next target for annexation was Czechoslovakia.
At the conference, Hitler stated that economic problems were causing Germany to fall behind in the arms race with Britain and France, and that the only solution was to launch in the near-future a series of wars to seize Austria and Czechoslovakia, whose economies would be plundered to give Germany the lead in the arms race.

Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920

1920 ConstitutionconstitutionConstitution of 1920
The full boundaries of the country and the organization of its government was finally established in the Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920.
A typical Chamber of Deputies during the First Republic had well over 10 factions represented.

Universal suffrage

universal adult suffrageuniversal franchiseuniversal male suffrage
The Czechoslovak state was conceived as a parliamentary democracy, guided primarily by the National Assembly, consisting of the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, whose members were to be elected on the basis of universal suffrage.

Communist Party of Czechoslovakia

Communist PartyCommunistKSČ
The Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party was considerably weakened when the communists seceded in 1921 to form the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, but by 1929 it had begun to regain its strength. A party of moderation, the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Party declared in favor of parliamentary democracy in 1930. Antonín Hampl was chairman of the party, and Ivan Dérer was the leader of its Slovak branch.
The party was one of some twenty political parties that competed within the democratic framework of the First Czechoslovak Republic, but it was never in government.

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
The state was commonly called Czechoslovakia (Czech and Československo).
During the First Czechoslovak Republic (1918–1938), although "Czechoslovak" was designated as the republic's official language, both Czech and Slovak written standards were used.

Austria-Hungary

Austro-HungarianAustro-Hungarian EmpireAustrian
It had inherited 70 to 80% of all the industry of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the porcelain and glass industries and the sugar refineries; more than 40% of all its distilleries and breweries; the Škoda Works of Pilsen (Plzeň), which produced armaments, locomotives, automobiles, and machinery; and the chemical industry of northern Bohemia.
The Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, respectively, and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were also recognized by the victorious powers in 1920.

Little Entente

Ententeneighbouring countriesneighbouring states
He negotiated the Little Entente (an alliance with Yugoslavia and Romania) in 1921 to counter Hungarian revanchism and Habsburg restoration.
The most remarkable and ardent proponent of the certain alliance binding the successor states was Edvard Beneš who served as Foreign Minister of Czechoslovakia from 1918 to 1935.

Carpathian Ruthenia

TranscarpathiaZakarpattiaCarpathia
It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia. It also ceded southern parts of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia to Hungary and the Zaolzie region in Silesia to Poland.
In the interwar period, it was part of the First and Second Czechoslovak Republic.

Škoda Works

ŠkodaSkodaŠkoda Transportation
It had inherited 70 to 80% of all the industry of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the porcelain and glass industries and the sugar refineries; more than 40% of all its distilleries and breweries; the Škoda Works of Pilsen (Plzeň), which produced armaments, locomotives, automobiles, and machinery; and the chemical industry of northern Bohemia.
Following the emergence of the Czechoslovak Republic in 1918, in the complex economic conditions of post-war Europe the company was transformed from what was exclusively an arms manufacturer into a multi-sector concern.

Antonín Švehla

The Pětka was headed by Antonín Švehla, who held the office of prime minister for most of the 1920s and designed a pattern of coalition politics that survived until 1938.
He is regarded as one of the most important political figures of the First Czechoslovak Republic; he was the leader of the Agrarian Party, which was dominant within the Pětka, which was largely his own invention.

Sudeten German Party

Sudetendeutsche HeimatfrontGerman National Socialist Workers PartyHenlein followers
Due to Czechoslovakia's centralized political structure, nationalism arose in the non-Czech nationalities, and several parties and movements were formed with the aim of broader political autonomy, like the Sudeten German Party led by Konrad Henlein and the Hlinka's Slovak People's Party led by Andrej Hlinka.
The Sudeten German Party (Sudetendeutsche Partei, SdP, Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of the Sudeten German Homeland") on 1 October 1933, some months after the First Czechoslovak Republic had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP).

Slovaks

SlovakSlovakianSlovakians
The concept of the Czechoslovak nation was necessary in order to justify the establishment of Czechoslovakia towards the world, because otherwise the statistical majority of the Czechs as compared to Germans would have been rather weak, and there would have been more Germans in the state than Slovaks.
Ukraine (17,000 / 6,397) [especially in Carpathian Ruthenia] – ancient minority and due to the existence of former Czechoslovakia

Ferdinand Peroutka

Peroutka, Ferdinand
Peroutka, Ferdinand: Budování státu I.-IV., Academia (2003), Praha, ISBN: 80-200-1121-8
A prominent political thinker and journalist during the First Czechoslovak Republic, Peroutka was persecuted by the Nazi regime for his democratic convictions and imprisoned at Buchenwald concentration camp.

List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia

PresidentPresident of CzechoslovakiaPresidents
The President of Czechoslovakia was the head of state of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.

List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia

Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Czechoslovakiacomplete list
The Prime Minister of Czechoslovakia was the head of government of Czechoslovakia, from the creation of the First Czechoslovak Republic in 1918 until the dissolution of the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic in 1992.

Czechoslovak declaration of independence

Czechoslovak independenceCzechoslovak Independence DayCzechoslovakia declared independence from Austria-Hungary
The Czechoslovak Declaration of Independence or the Washington Declaration (Washingtonská deklarace; Washingtonská deklarácia) was drafted in Washington, D.C. and published by Czechoslovakia's Paris-based Provisional Government on 18 October 1918.

Czech Republic

🇨🇿CzechCZE
The First Czechoslovak Republic comprised only 27% of the population of the former Austria-Hungary, but nearly 80% of the industry, which enabled it to successfully compete with Western industrial states.

Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

Sudeten Germansprotests and violenceGerman minority
Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918–1938)

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarians
Seventeen percent of all Hungarian industry that had developed in Slovakia during the late 19th century also fell to the republic.
The main beneficiaries were Romania, the newly formed states of Czechoslovakia, and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but Austria, Poland and Italy also gained smaller territories.

Ukraine

🇺🇦UkrainianUKR
Bukovina was annexed by Romania and Carpathian Ruthenia was admitted to the Czechoslovak Republic as an autonomy.