A report on TonkinLaos and First Indochina War

Tonkin, 1771.
Clockwise from top: After the fall of Dien Bien Phu supporting Laotian troops fall back across the Mekong River into Laos; French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast in July 1950; M24 Chaffee American light tank used by French in Vietnam; Geneva Conference on 21 July 1954; A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat from Escadrille 1F prepares to land on operating in the Gulf of Tonkin.
1873 map of the deltaic plain of Tonkin region (northern Vietnam).
French Indochina (1913)
1894 map of Red River Delta in French protectorate of Tonkin.
Pha That Luang in Vientiane is the national symbol of Laos.
Võ Nguyên Giáp and Hồ Chí Minh (1945)
Administrative divisions of Tonkin 1929
Fa Ngum, founder of the Lan Xang Kingdom
Japanese troops lay down their arms to British troops in a ceremony in Saigon after the surrender of Japan.
Administrative divisions of Tonkin 1920
Local Lao soldiers in the French Colonial guard, c. 1900
Commander of the C.L.I. (Corps Léger d'Intervention) arriving in Indochina.
Tonkin in the early 1900s
French General Salan and Prince Sisavang Vatthana in Luang Prabang, 4 May 1953
Telegram from Hồ Chí Minh to U.S. President Harry S. Truman requesting support for independence (Hanoi, February 28, 1946)
1899 Map of Tonkin
Ruins of Muang Khoun, former capital of Xiangkhouang province, destroyed by the American bombing of Laos in the late 1960s
Hồ Chí Minh and Marius Moutet shaking hands after signing modus vivendi 1946 after Fontainebleau Agreements
Tonkin in the 1880s
Pathet Lao soldiers in Vientiane, 1972
French Marine commandos wade ashore off the Annam coast
Military territories of Tonkin 1894
Mekong River flowing through Luang Prabang
A map of dissident activities in Indochina in 1950
Capture of Nam Định, 1883
Paddy fields in Laos
General Trình Minh Thế
French zouave officer in Tonkin, Spring 1885
Laos map of Köppen climate classification.
French foreign airborne 1st BEP firing with an FM 24/29 light machine gun during an ambush (1952)
Hanoi around 1910
Flag of the ruling Lao People's Revolutionary Party
A Bearcat naval fighter aircraft of the Aéronavale drops napalm on Việt Minh Division 320th's artillery during Operation Mouette (November 1953)
The French General Gouvernor's Palace in Hanoi
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi and ASEAN heads of state in New Delhi on 25 January 2018
Map of the war in 1954: Orange = Areas under Việt Minh control. Purple = Areas under French control. White-dotted hatch = Areas of Việt Minh guerrilla encampment and fighting.
Tonkin woman with black-painted teeth, ca. 1908
Prime Minister Thongloun Sisoulith with Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2016
Captured French soldiers, escorted by Vietnamese troops, walk to a prisoner-of-war camp in Dien Bien Phu
Hmong girls in Laos, 1973
The 1954 Geneva Conference
A proportional representation of Laos exports, 2019
Student demonstration in Saigon, July 1964, observing the tenth anniversary of the July 1954 Geneva Agreements
GDP per capita development in Laos
French Foreign Legion patrol question a suspected member of the Việt Minh.
Near the sanctuary on the main upper level of Vat Phou, looking back towards the Mekong River
China supplied the Việt Minh with hundreds of Soviet-built GAZ-51 trucks during the 1950s.
Rivers are an important means of transport in Laos.
Anti-communist Vietnamese refugees moving from a French LSM landing ship to the USS Montague (AKA-98) during Operation Passage to Freedom in 1954
Pha That Luang in Vientiane. The Buddhist stupa that is a national symbol of Laos.
Bois Belleau (aka USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24)) transferred to France in 1953
Mahosot Hospital in Vientiane.
A 1952 F4U-7 Corsair of the 14.F flotilla which fought at Dien Bien Phu
National University of Laos in Vientiane.
French-marked USAF C-119 flown by CIA pilots over Dien Bien Phu in 1954
An example of Lao cuisine
A poster celebrating the 60th anniversary of the French recognition of North Vietnamese independence
Lao women wearing sinhs
French Indochina medal, law of August 1, 1953
Lao dancers during the New Year celebration
New Laos National Stadium in Vientiane.
Wat Nong Sikhounmuang - buddhist pagoda in Luang Prabang.

Most of the fighting took place in Tonkin in northern Vietnam, although the conflict engulfed the entire country and also extended into the neighboring French Indochina protectorates of Laos and Cambodia.

- First Indochina War

It is south of Yunnan (Vân Nam) and Guangxi (Quảng Tây) Provinces of China; east of northern Laos and west of the Gulf of Tonkin.

- Tonkin

Hanoi was later reoccupied by the French and conflict between the Viet Minh and France broke out into the First Indochina War.

- Tonkin

Laos never held any importance for France other than as a buffer state between Thailand and the more economically important Annam and Tonkin.

- Laos

During the First Indochina War, the Indochinese Communist Party formed the Pathet Lao independence organisation.

- Laos
Tonkin, 1771.

2 related topics with Alpha



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Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

Country in Southeast Asia, at the eastern edge of mainland Southeast Asia, with an area of 311699 km2 and population of 96 million, making it the world's fifteenth-most populous country.

A Đông Sơn bronze drum, c. 800 BC
Vietnam's territories around 1838
The Grand Palais built for the 1902–1903 world's fair, when Hanoi was French Indochina's capital
Partition of French Indochina after the 1954 Geneva Conference
Three US Fairchild UC-123B aircraft spraying Agent Orange during the Operation Ranch Hand as part of a herbicidal warfare operation depriving the food and vegetation cover of the Việt Cộng, c. 1962–1971
Nature attractions in Vietnam, clockwise from top: Hạ Long Bay, Yến River and Bản-Giốc Waterfalls
Hoàng Liên Sơn mountain range, the range that includes Fansipan which is the highest summit on the Indochinese Peninsula.
Köppen climate classification map of Vietnam.
Nha Trang, a popular beach destination has a tropical savanna climate.
Native species in Vietnam, clockwise from top-right: crested argus, a peafowl, red-shanked douc, Indochinese leopard, saola.
Sa Pa mountain hills with agricultural activities
The National Assembly of Vietnam building in Hanoi
Examples of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right: T-54B tank, Sukhoi Su-27UBK fighter aircraft, Vietnam Coast Guard Hamilton-class cutter, and Vietnam People's Army chemical corps with Type 56.
A Communist Party propaganda poster in Hanoi
Historical GDP per capita development of Vietnam
Tree map showing Vietnam's exports
Vietnam's tallest skyscraper, the Landmark 81 located in Bình Thạnh, Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon).
Terraced rice fields in Sa Pa
A Vietnamese-made TOPIO 3.0 humanoid ping-pong-playing robot displayed during the 2009 International Robot Exhibition (IREX) in Tokyo.
Vietnamese science students working on an experiment in their university lab.
Hội An, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is a major tourist destination.
HCMC–LT–DG section of the North–South Expressway.
Tan Son Nhat International Airport is the busiest airport in the country.
The port of Hai Phong is one of the largest and busiest container ports in Vietnam.
Sơn La Dam in northern Vietnam, the largest hydroelectric dam in Southeast Asia.
In rural areas of Vietnam, piped water systems are operated by a wide variety of institutions including a national organisation, people committees (local government), community groups, co-operatives and private companies.
Development of life expectancy in Vietnam since 1950
Vietnam population pyramid in 2019
District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Urbanisation in west Hanoi
Vietnamese calligraphy in Latin alphabet.
Vietnamese traditional white school uniform for girls in the country, the áo dài with the addition of nón lá, a conical hat.
Vietnamese dragon on Emperor Khải Định's c. 1917 scroll in British Library collection.
Ca trù trio performance in northern Vietnam
Some of the notable Vietnamese cuisine, clockwise from top-right: phở noodle, chè thái fruit dessert, chả giò spring roll and bánh mì sandwich.
Vietnam Television (VTV), the main state television station
Special Tết decoration in the country seen during the holiday
Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi.

Vietnam borders China to the north, Laos and Cambodia to the west, and shares maritime borders with Thailand through the Gulf of Thailand, and the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia through the South China Sea.

After World War II, France returned to reclaim colonial power in the First Indochina War, from which Vietnam emerged victorious in 1954.

Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries under the Padroado system were active in both Vietnamese realms of Đàng Trong (Cochinchina or Quinan) and Đàng Ngoài (Tonkin) in the 17th century.

South Vietnam

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Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

Country in Southeast Asia that existed from 1955 to 1975, the period when the southern portion of Vietnam was a member of the Western Bloc during part of the Cold War.

About 1 million North Vietnamese refugees left the newly created communist North Vietnam during Operation "Passage to Freedom" (October 1954).
US President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Secretary of State John Foster Dulles greet President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam in Washington, 8 May 1957.
A woman casting her ballot in the 1967 elections in the Republic of Vietnam
Radio Vietnam broadcast hours cards, denoting times and frequencies of radio broadcasts in 1960 and 1962. Address: 3 Phan Dinh Phung St., Saigon
Map of South Vietnam

A French governor-general (toàn quyền) in Hanoi administered all the five parts of Indochina (Tonkin, Annam, Cochinchina, Laos, and Cambodia) while Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ) was under a French governor (thống đốc), but the difference from the other parts with most indigenous intelligentsia and wealthy were naturalized French (Tourane now Đà Nẵng in the central third of Vietnam also enjoyed this privilege because this city was a concession too.) The northern third of Vietnam (then the colony (thuộc địa) of Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ) was under a French resident general (thống sứ).

The French Indochina War began on 19 December 1946, with the French regaining control of Hanoi and many other cities.