First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndianAboriginalIndiansnativeFirst Nations peopleNative AmericansnativesNation
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations ) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.wikipedia
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Inuit

InukInuit peopleEskimos
Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis.
In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis.

British Columbia

BCBritish Columbia, CanadaB.C.
There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area.

Indigenous peoples in Canada

AboriginalIndigenousAboriginal peoples in Canada
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations ) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, or by the initialism FNIM (First Nations, Inuit, Métis), Although "Indian" is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and some consider them to be pejorative.

Indian Act

Bill C-31Indian Act of CanadaCanadian Indian Act
A band is a "body of Indians (a) for whose use and benefit in common lands ... have been set apart, (b) ... moneys are held ... or (c) declared ... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown.
First passed in 1876 and still in force with amendments, it is the primary document which defines how the Government of Canada interacts with the 614 First Nation bands in Canada and their members.

Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginal
Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, also known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations.
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, autochthonous or first (as in Canada's First Peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis)).

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Although not without conflict, early Quebecers', Acadians', and Newfoundlanders' interactions with First Nations, Métis, and Inuit populations were less combative compared to the often violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States.
By comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations.

Kwantlen First Nation

KwantlenKwantlen NationKwantlen people
A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g., "I'm Haida", or "We're Kwantlens", in recognition of the distinctive First Nations.
Kwantlen First Nation is a First Nations band government in British Columbia, Canada, located primarily on McMillan Island near Fort Langley.

Tłı̨chǫ

DogribTli ChoTlicho
In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, and Tlingit.
The Tłı̨chǫ people, sometimes spelled Tlicho and also known as the Dogrib, are a Dene First Nations people of the Athabaskan-speaking ethnolinguistic group living in the Northwest Territories, Canada.

Cree

Cree peopleNehiyawCree Nation
In the northern woodlands were the Cree and Chipewyan.
The Cree (Néhinaw, Néhiyaw, etc; Cri) are one of the largest groups of First Nations in North America.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis.
Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but also the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood.

Kainai Nation

KainaiBloodBlood Tribe
In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai, Sarcee and Northern Peigan.
The Kainai Nation (or Káínawa, or Blood Tribe) is a First Nations band government in southern Alberta, Canada, with a population of 12,800 members in 2015.

Indian reserve

reserveIndian reservesreserves
The singular, commonly used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term "First Nations person" (when gender-specific, "First Nations man" or "First Nations woman").
First Nations reserves are the areas set aside for First Nations people after a contract with the Canadian state ("the Crown"), and are not to be confused with land claims areas, which involve all of that First Nations' traditional lands: a much larger territory than any other reserve.

Piikani Nation

PeiganNorthern PeiganPiikani
In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai, Sarcee and Northern Peigan.
The Piikani Nation (formerly the Peigan Nation) is a First Nation (or an Indian band as defined by the Indian Act), representing Canadian Indigenous peoples known as the Northern Piikani or simply the Peigan (Piikáni or Pekuni).

Tsuutʼina Nation

Tsuu T'inaTsuu T'ina NationSarcee
In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai, Sarcee and Northern Peigan.
The Tsuutʼina Nation (also Tsu Tʼina, Tsuu Tʼina, Tsúùtínà – "a great number of people"; formerly Sarcee, Sarsi) is a First Nation band government in Alberta, Canada.

Abenaki

Abenaki peopleAbenakisAbnaki
Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Maliseet, Innu, Abenaki and Micmac.
The Abenaki (Abnaki, Abinaki, Alnôbak) are a Native American tribe and First Nation.

Maliseet

WolastoqiyikMaleciteMaliseet people
Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Maliseet, Innu, Abenaki and Micmac.
The Wəlastəkwewiyik, or Maliseet (, also spelled Malecite), are an Algonquian-speaking First Nation of the Wabanaki Confederacy.

Blackfoot Confederacy

BlackfootBlackfeetBlackfoot Indians
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The Assiniboine were close allies and trading partners of the Cree, engaging in wars against the Gros Ventres alongside them, and later fighting the Blackfeet.
Today, three First Nation band governments (the Siksika Nation, Kainai Nation, and Piikani Nation) reside in Canada in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia, and the Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation is a federally recognized Native American tribe in Montana, United States.

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.
American troops in the War of 1812 invaded Upper Canada across the Niagara River and the Detroit River, but were defeated and pushed back by the British, Canadian fencibles and militias, and First Nations warriors.

Royal Proclamation of 1763

Proclamation of 1763Royal ProclamationProclamation Line of 1763
Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, also known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations.
The Royal Proclamation continues to be of legal importance to First Nations in Canada.

History of Canada

Canadian historyCanadahistory
European accounts by trappers, traders, explorers, and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture.
Despite these initial failures, French fishing fleets visited the Atlantic coast communities and sailed into the St. Lawrence River, trading and making alliances with First Nations, as well as establishing fishing settlements such as in Percé (1603).

Assiniboine

AssiniboinesAssiniboine peopleNakota
The Assiniboine were close allies and trading partners of the Cree, engaging in wars against the Gros Ventres alongside them, and later fighting the Blackfeet.
The Assiniboine or Assiniboin people ( when singular, when plural; Ojibwe: Asiniibwaan, "stone Sioux"; also in plural Assiniboine or Assiniboin), also known as the Hohe and known by the endonym Nakota (or Nakoda or Nakona), are a First Nations/Native American people originally from the Northern Great Plains of North America.

Longhouses of the indigenous peoples of North America

longhouselonghouseslong houses
The first man, named Tseḵánchten, built his longhouse in the village, and later on another man named Xelálten, appeared on his longhouse roof and sent by the Creator, or in the Squamish language keke7nex siyam.
Longhouses were a style of residential dwelling built by Native American tribes and First Nation band governments in various parts of North America.

Chipewyan

DenesulineChipewyan peopleChipewyans
In the northern woodlands were the Cree and Chipewyan.
The following list of First Nations band governments had in August 2016 a total registered membership of 25,519, with 11,315 in Saskatchewan, 6,952 in Alberta, 3,038 in Manitoba and 4,214 in the Northwest Territories.

Beothuk

BeothuksBeothuk peopleBeothuck
Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Maliseet, Innu, Abenaki and Micmac.
It also demonstrated they were solely of First Nation indigenous maternal ancestry, unlike some earlier studies that suggested European admixture.

1700 Cascadia earthquake

Cascadia earthquakeCascadia earthquake of 17001700
Some of their oral traditions accurately describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption.
Local Native American and First Nations groups residing in Cascadia used oral tradition to transmit knowledge from one generation to the next, so there is no written documentation like with Japanese tsunami.