Emblem worn by LWP soldiers; the "Piast eagle" without the crown
Marking new Polish-German border on Oder River in 1945
Polish troops, 1943
The Polish First Army on their way to Berlin, 1945
The Polish First Army on their way to Berlin, 1945
Polish flag raised on the top of Berlin Victory Column on 2 May 1945
T-55A tanks of the Polish People's Army (Martial law in Poland)

It was formed in the Soviet Union in 1944, from the previously existing Polish I Corps in the Soviet Union, as part of the People's Army of Poland (LWP).

- First Polish Army (1944–1945)

What became the LWP was formed during World War II, in May 1943, as the 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, which developed into the First Polish Army, unofficially known as Berling's Army.

- Polish People's Army
Emblem worn by LWP soldiers; the "Piast eagle" without the crown

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The "Piast eagle" worn by Polish Army Formations in the East, 1943–1945

Polish Armed Forces in the East

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The Polish Armed Forces in the East (Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Wschodzie), also called Polish Army in the USSR, were the Polish military forces established in the Soviet Union during World War II.

The Polish Armed Forces in the East (Polskie Siły Zbrojne na Wschodzie), also called Polish Army in the USSR, were the Polish military forces established in the Soviet Union during World War II.

The "Piast eagle" worn by Polish Army Formations in the East, 1943–1945
Polish volunteers to the army of Władysław Anders, released from a Soviet POW camp
Generals Karol Świerczewski (front), Marian Spychalski and Michał Rola-Żymierski
Soldiers of the Polish Second Army in the area of the Lusatian Neisse River after fording it in April 1945
Polish Army tanks riding to Berlin in 1945.

It was enlarged and reorganised into the Polish First Army (Berling's Army) and the Polish Second Army.

Together they constituted the Polish People's Army (Ludowe Wojsko Polskie, LWP); it fought on the Eastern Front under Soviet command all the way to the Battle of Berlin.

General Zygmunt Berling (wearing the uniform of a colonel)

Zygmunt Berling

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Polish general and politician.

Polish general and politician.

General Zygmunt Berling (wearing the uniform of a colonel)
1928 army document signed by Berling when he was a major - Krakow.
General Berling in Warsaw, 1947
Berling gravestone at Powązki Military Cemetery

Berling was a co-founder and commander of the First Polish Army, which fought on the Eastern Front of World War II.

In May 1943, the communist-led Polish People's Army was created in the Soviet Union.

Motorcyclists of the 2nd Polish Army during the Lusatian operation, April 1945

Second Army (Poland)

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The Polish Second Army (Druga Armia Wojska Polskiego, 2.

The Polish Second Army (Druga Armia Wojska Polskiego, 2.

Motorcyclists of the 2nd Polish Army during the Lusatian operation, April 1945
Memorial stone in Bautzen
Karol Świerczewski (front). The two other officers are Marian Spychalski and Michał Rola-Żymierski

AWP for short) was a Polish Army unit formed in the Soviet Union in 1944 as part of the People's Army of Poland.

The first plans called for the formation of Polish Second Army and Polish Third Army, which were to be joined with the Polish First Army into a Polish Front (at that time the Polish forces were part of the 1st Belorussian Front).

Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) in 1945. 80% of the city was destroyed during the war

Battle of Kolberg (1945)

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Kołobrzeg (Kolberg) in 1945. 80% of the city was destroyed during the war

The Battle of Kolberg or Battle of Kołobrzeg (also, battle for Festung Kolberg) was the taking of the city of Kolberg, now the city of Kołobrzeg, in Pomerania by the Soviet Army and its Polish allies from Nazi German forces during the World War II East Pomeranian Offensive.

The Soviet and Soviet-allied Polish forces attacking the city can be divided into two waves: one of units of the Red Army, from 4 to 7 March, and one of units of the First Polish Army (from the 1st Belorussian Front), from 8 to 14 March, although some Soviet units took part in the combat after 8 March.

Polish People's Republic

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Country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 as the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland.

Country in Central Europe that existed from 1947 to 1989 as the predecessor of the modern Republic of Poland.

The Polish People's Republic in 1989
Poland's fate was heavily discussed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945. Joseph Stalin, whose Red Army occupied the entire country, presented several alternatives which granted Poland industrialized territories in the west whilst the Red Army simultaneously permanently annexed Polish territories in the east, resulting in Poland losing over 20% of its pre-war borders - areas primarily inhabited by ethnic Belarusians or Ukrainians. Soviet-backed Polish communists came to power and oversaw the country's entry into the Warsaw Pact in 1955.
Border changes of Poland after World War II. The eastern territories (Kresy) were annexed by the Soviets. The western territories, referred to as the "Recovered Territories", were granted as war reparations. Despite the western lands being more industrialized, Poland lost 77,035 km2 (29,743 sq mi) and major cities like Lviv and Vilnius.
The 1970 Polish protests were put down by the Communist authorities and Citizens' Militia. The riots resulted in the deaths of 42 people and over 1,000 injured.
Queues waiting to enter grocery stores in Warsaw and other Polish cities and towns were typical in the late 1980s. The availability of food and goods varied at times, and the most sought after basic item was toilet paper.
The new Warszawa Centralna railway station in Warsaw had automatic doors and escalators. It was a flagship project during the 1970s economic boom and was dubbed the most modern station in Europe at the time of its completion in 1975.
Lech Wałęsa co-founded and headed the Solidarity movement which toppled Communism. He later became the President of Poland.
The 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard Strike and subsequent Summer 1981 Hunger Demonstrations were instrumental in strengthening the Solidarity movement's influence.
Logo of the Polish United Workers' Party
Władysław Gomułka and Leonid Brezhnev in East Berlin, 1967
An abandoned State Agricultural Farm in south-eastern Poland. State farms were a form of collective farming created in 1949.
Łódź was Poland's largest city after the destruction of Warsaw during World War II. It was also a major industrial centre in Europe and served as the temporary capital due to its economic significance in the 1940s.
Female textile workers in a state-run factory, Łódź, 1950s
Supersam Warsaw, the first self-serve shopping centre in Poland, 1969
Pewex, a chain of hard currency stores which sold unobtainable Western goods and items
Ration cards for sugar, 1977
Bar mleczny, a former milk bar in Gdynia. These canteens offered value meals to citizens throughout Communist Poland.
Trybuna Ludu (People's Tribune) was a government-sponsored newspaper and propaganda outlet
Andrzej Wajda was a key figure in Polish cinematography during and after the fall of communism
Allegory of communist censorship, Poland, 1989. Newspapers visible are from all Eastern Bloc countries including East Germany, the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia
The 237-meter Palace of Culture and Science in Warsaw, constructed in 1955. At the time of its completion it was one of the tallest buildings in Europe
Smyk Department Store, 1960s
Polish university students during lecture, 1964
One of many schools constructed in central Warsaw in the 1960s
Jerzy Popiełuszko was a Roman Catholic priest who supported the anti-communist opposition. He was murdered by the Security Services "SB" of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
A demographics graph illustrating population growth between 1900 and 2010. The highest birth rate was during the Second Polish Republic and consequently under the Polish People's Republic.
A typical socialist apartment building in Warsaw representing the style of functionalism, built due to the ever-growing population and high birth rate at the time
Konstantin Rokossovsky, pictured in a Polish uniform, was Marshal of the Soviet Union and Marshal of Poland until being deposed during the Polish October in 1956.
Poland's old and new borders, 1945

The Polish People's Republic maintained a large standing army.

The Polish People's Army (LWP) was initially formed during World War II as the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, but more commonly known as the Berling Army.