A report on Fish

Dunkleosteus was a gigantic, 10 m long prehistoric fish of class Placodermi.
Lower jaw of the placoderm Eastmanosteus pustulosus, showing the shearing structures ("teeth") on its oral surface; from the Devonian of Wisconsin
Leedsichthys, of the subclass Actinopterygii, is the largest known fish, with estimates in 2005 putting its maximum size at 16 m.
A relative of the seahorses, the leafy seadragon's appendages allow it to camouflage (in the form of crypsis) with the surrounding seaweed.
The psychedelic mandarin dragonet is one of only two animal species known to have blue colouring because of cellular pigment.
Diversity of various groups of fish (and other vertebrates) through time
Lungfish are the closest living relatives of tetrapods (four-limbed vertebrates).
The bowfin Amia calva is the sole survivor of the halecomorph clade.
Organs: 1. Liver, 2. Gas bladder, 3. Roe, 4. Pyloric caeca, 5. Stomach, 6. Intestine
Tuna gills inside the head. The fish head is oriented snout-downwards, with the view looking towards the mouth.
Didactic model of a fish heart
Dorsal view of the brain of the rainbow trout
The anatomy of Lampanyctodes hectoris (1) operculum (gill cover), (2) lateral line, (3) dorsal fin, (4) fat fin, (5) caudal peduncle, (6) caudal fin, (7) anal fin, (8) photophores, (9) pelvic fins (paired), (10) pectoral fins (paired)
Swim bladder of a rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus)
Ovary of fish (Corumbatá)
French grunts – Haemulon flavolineatum
Whale sharks, the largest species of fish, are classified as vulnerable.
These fish-farming ponds were created as a cooperative project in a rural village.
Fish counter display at the Oulu Market Hall in Oulu, Finland.
A Bengali fish vendor
Avatar of Vishnu as a Matsya
The ichthus is a Christian symbol of a fish signifying that the person who uses it is a Christian.
These goldband fusiliers are schooling because their swimming is synchronised.
Agnatha (Pacific hagfish)
Chondrichthyes (Horn shark)
Actinopterygii (Brown trout)
Sarcopterygii (Coelacanth)
Egg of lamprey
Egg of catshark (mermaids' purse)
Egg of bullhead shark
Egg of chimaera

Fish are aquatic, craniate, gill-bearing animals that lack limbs with digits.

- Fish

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Fossil shark tooth (size over 9 cm) with crown, shoulder, root and root lobe
A collection of Cretaceous shark teeth
Megalodon (top two, estimated maximum and conservative sizes) with the whale shark, great white shark, and a human for scale
Identification of the 8 extant shark orders
Shark fossil, Lebachacanthus senckenbergianus, at Permian period
General anatomical features of sharks
The teeth of tiger sharks are oblique and serrated to saw through flesh
The dermal denticles of a lemon shark, viewed through a scanning electron microscope
The shape of the hammerhead shark's head may enhance olfaction by spacing the nostrils further apart.
Eye of a bigeyed sixgill shark (Hexanchus nakamurai)
Electromagnetic field receptors (ampullae of Lorenzini) and motion detecting canals in the head of a shark
Unlike many other sharks, the great white shark is not actually an apex predator in all of its natural environments, as it is sometimes hunted by orcas
A sign warning about the presence of sharks in Salt Rock, South Africa
Snorkeler swims near a blacktip reef shark. In rare circumstances involving poor visibility, blacktips may bite a human, mistaking it for prey. Under normal conditions they are harmless and shy.
A whale shark in Georgia Aquarium
Shark-themed nose art, made popular by the Flying Tigers (pictured), is commonly seen on military aircraft.
The annual shark catch has increased rapidly over the last 60 years.
The value of shark fins for shark fin soup has led to an increase in shark catches where usually only the fins are taken, while the rest of the shark is discarded, typically into the sea; health concerns about BMAA in the fins now exists regarding consumption of the soup
A 14 ft, 1200 lb tiger shark caught in Kāne'ohe Bay, Oahu in 1966

Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.


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Fossilized skeleton (cast) of Diplodocus carnegii, showing an extreme example of the backbone that characterizes the vertebrates.
Gill arches bearing gills in a pike
The early vertebrate Haikouichthys
Acanthostega, a fish-like early labyrinthodont.
Traditional spindle diagram of the evolution of the vertebrates at class level
Diversity of various groups of vertebrates through the geologic ages. The width of the bubbles signifies the diversity (number of families).
The galeaspid Nochelaspis maeandrine from the Devonian period
The placoderm Dunkleosteus terrelli from the Devonian period
The acanthodian fish Diplacanthus acus from the Devonian period
The early ray-fin Cheirolepis canadensis from the Devonian period
The tetrapodomorph Tiktaalik roseae from the Devonian period
The early tetrapod Seymouria from the Permian period
The synapsid "mammal-like reptile" Dimetrodon limbatus from the Permian period
The bird-like dinosaur Archaeopteryx lithographica from the Jurassic period

Vertebrates comprise all animal taxa within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones), including all mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish.


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Skull and jaw anatomy
Caudal skeleton showing symmetrical (homocercal) tail
Evolution of ray-finned fishes, Actinopterygii, from the Devonian to the present as a spindle diagram. The width of the spindles are proportional to the number of families as a rough estimate of diversity. The diagram is based on Benton, M. J. (2005) Vertebrate Palaeontology, Blackwell, 3rd edition, Fig 7.13 on page 185.
Aspidorhynchus acustirostris, an early teleost from the Middle Jurassic
Predatory teleost: the flesh-cutting teeth of a piranha (Serrasalmidae)
A rare giant oarfish (Regalecus glesne), 23 ft long, captured in 1996
The winter flounder is asymmetrical, with both eyes lying on the same side of the head.
Commensal fish: a remora holds on to its host with a sucker-like organ (detail inset)
The knifefish Gymnarchus niloticus generates weak electric fields enabling it to detect and locate prey in turbid water.
Fish in a hot desert: the desert pupfish
A stickleback stained to show the lateral line elements (neuromasts)
Osmotic challenge: American eels spawn in the sea but spend most of their adult life in freshwater, returning only to spawn.
A teleost swim bladder
Flying fish combine swimming movements with the ability to glide in air using their long pectoral fins.
Clownfish are protandrous hermaphrodites; when the female of a breeding pair dies, the male changes sex and a subordinate male takes his place as the breeding male.
Male desert goby courting a female
Male (top) and female humphead parrotfish, showing sexual dimorphism
Three-spined stickleback males (red belly) build nests and compete to attract females to lay eggs in them. Males then defend and fan the eggs. Painting by Alexander Francis Lydon, 1879
"Pregnant" male seahorse
Newly hatched Atlantic salmon with yolk sac
Schooling predatory bluefin trevally sizing up schooling anchovies
Fish farming in the sea off Scotland
Capture of Atlantic Cod 1950-2005 (FAO)
Service to science: zebrafish being bred in a research institute
Wall painting of fishing, Tomb of Menna the scribe, Thebes, Ancient Egypt, c. 1422–1411 BC
Italian Renaissance: Fish, Antonio Tanari, c. 1610–1630, in the Medici Villa, Poggio a Caiano
Dutch Golden Age painting: Fish Still Life with Stormy Seas, Willem Ormea and Abraham Willaerts, 1636
Mandarin Fish by Bian Shoumin, Qing dynasty, 18th century
Saito Oniwakamaru fights a giant carp at the Bishimon waterfall by Utagawa Kuniyoshi, 19th century
Still Life with Mackerel, Lemons and Tomato, Vincent van Gogh, 1886
Teleostei by Ernst Haeckel, 1904. Four species, surrounded by scales
Ostraciontes by Ernst Haeckel, 1904. Ten teleosts, with Lactoria cornuta in centre.
Fish Magic, Paul Klee, oil and watercolour varnished, 1925

Teleostei (Greek teleios "complete" + osteon "bone"), members of which are known as teleosts ), is, by far, the largest infraclass in the class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes, containing 96% of all extant species of fish.


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Clade of the bony fishes.

Clade of the bony fishes.

A: dorsal fin, B: fin rays, C: lateral line, D: kidney, E: swim bladder, F: Weberian apparatus, G: inner ear, H: brain, I: nostrils, L: eye, M: gills, N: heart, O: stomach, P: gall bladder, Q: spleen, R: internal sex organs (ovaries or testes), S: ventral fins, T: spine, U: anal fin, V: tail (caudal fin). Possible other parts not shown: barbels, adipose fin, external genitalia (gonopodium)
Three-spined stickleback males (red belly) build nests and compete to attract females to lay eggs in them. Males then defend and fan the eggs. Painting by Alexander Francis Lydon, 1879
Fossil of the Devonian cheirolepidiform Cheirolepis canadensis
Fossil of the Carboniferous elonichthyiform Elonichthys peltigerus
Fossil of the Permian aeduelliform Aeduella blainvillei
Fossil of the Permian palaeonisciform Palaeoniscum freieslebeni
Fossil of the Triassic bobasatraniiform Bobasatrania canadensis
Fossil of the Triassic perleidiform Thoracopterus magnificus
Fossils of the Triassic prohaleciteiform Prohalecites sp., the earliest teleosteomorph
Fossil of the Jurassic aspidorhynchiform Aspidorhynchus sp.
Fossil of the Jurassic pachycormiform Pachycormus curtus
Fossil of the Cretaceous acipenseriform Yanosteus longidorsalis
Fossil of the Cretaceous aulopiform Nematonotus longispinus
Fossil of the Cretaceous ichthyodectiform Thrissops formosus
Fossil of the Cretaceous carangiform Mene oblonga
Fossil of the Cretaceous pleuronectiform Amphistium paradoxum
Fossil of a ray-finned perch (Priscacara serrata) from the Lower Eocene about 50 million years ago
Fossil of the Miocene syngnathiform Nerophis zapfei
Skeleton of the angler fish, Lophius piscatorius. The first spine of the dorsal fin of the anglerfish is modified so it functions like a fishing rod with a lure
Skeleton of another ray-finned fish, the lingcod

The ray-finned fishes are so-called because their fins are webs of skin supported by bony or horny spines (rays), as opposed to the fleshy, lobed fins that characterize the class Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish).

Stone Age fish hook made from bone


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Stone Age fish hook made from bone
Painting of A Brixham trawler by William Adolphus Knell. The painting is now in the National Maritime Museum.
Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler, published in 1653 helped popularise fly fishing as a sport.
Woodcut by Louis Rhead
Trading card of the Ustonson company, an early firm specializing in fishing equipment, and holder of a Royal Warrant from the 1760s.
'Nottingham' and 'Scarborough' reel designs.
Fishing became a popular recreational activity in the 19th century. Print from Currier and Ives.
Fishermen with traditional fish traps, Vietnam
An angler on the Kennet and Avon Canal, England, with his tackle
Commercial crab boat working in the North Sea
Small sport fishing boat
A fisherman on the rapids in Nukari, Nurmijärvi, Finland
Modern Spanish tuna purse seiner in the Seychelles Islands
Push-up trap developed by Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences for more accurate and less harmful fishing
Gyula Derkovits, still-life with fish (1928)
Ona, a traditional fishing village in Norway
Kaibarta woman with traditional fish catching device made from bamboo in Assam
Contribution of fish to animal protein supply, average 2013-2015
World capture fisheries and aquaculture production 1950 - 2015

Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.


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Guiyu oneiros, the earliest known bony fish, lived during the Late Silurian, 425 million years ago. It has a combination of both ray-finned and lobe-finned features, although analysis of the totality of its features place it closer to lobe-finned fish.
Ocean sunfish is the heaviest bony fish in the world

Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue.


Wild fisheries

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Septic river.
Polluted lagoon.
Effect of eutrophication on marine benthic life

A wild fishery is a natural body of water with a sizeable free-ranging fish or other aquatic animal (crustaceans and molluscs) population that can be harvested for its commercial value.

Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture) at Loch Ainort, Isle of Skye, Scotland

Fish farming

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Salmon farming in the sea (mariculture) at Loch Ainort, Isle of Skye, Scotland
World capture fisheries and aquaculture production by production mode, from FAO's Statistical Yearbook 2021
Expressing eggs from a female rainbow trout
Controlling roes manually
Giant gourami is often raised in cages in central Thailand.
These fish-farming ponds were created as a cooperative project in a rural village in the Congo.
Aerators in a fish farm (Ararat plain, Armenia)
Fish farming in the fjords of southern Chile
Houseboat rafts with cages under for rearing fish near Mỹ Tho, Vietnam
Transport boats moored at fish processing plant, Mỹ Tho
Communal Zapotec fish farm in Ixtlán de Juárez, Mexico
Fish farming traditionally takes place in purpose-built tanks in the Skardu region in northern Pakistan.
Pisciculture Complex, outside Rio Branco, Brazil

Fish farming or pisciculture involves commercial breeding of fish, usually for food, in fish tanks or artificial enclosures such as fish ponds.


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Lips of Labrus festivus
Cleaner wrasses, Labroides sp., working on gill area of dragon wrasse Novaculichthys taeniourus, on a reef in Hawaii
Giant Napoleon wrasse Cheilinus undulatus in Apo Reef, Philippines
Humphead wrasse, Cheilinus undulatus, Melbourne Aquarium
Yellowtail wrasse, Coris gaimard, Hawaii
A yellowtail coris wrasse, Coris gaimard, is being cleaned by Labroides phthirophagus in Hawaii.
Bird wrasse, Gomphosus varius, Kona (Hawaii)
Gomphosus varius
Gomphosus caeruleus swimming with a yellow goatfish
Bluehead wrasse, Belize Barrier Reef
Clown wrasse, Coris aygula, Red Sea
Pearl wrasse, Anampses cuvieri, Hawaii
Bluestreak wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus
Six-line wrasse , Pseudocheilinus hexataenia
Cuckoo wrasse by Wilhelm von Wright

The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored.


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Two views of the hagfish (Myxini glutinosa) with analytical overlays and dissection, published 1905
Pacific hagfish at 150 m depth, California, Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary
An Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) using its slime to get away from a kitefin shark (Dalatias licha) and an Atlantic wreckfish (Polyprion americanus).
Pacific hagfish trying to hide under a rock
Dorsal / left lateral views of dissected hagfish brain, scale bar added for size
Vertical section of hagfish midline trunk: The notochord is the only skeletal element and the musculature lacks a horizontal and vertical septum.
Hagfish skull Fig 74 in Kingsley 1912
Egg development in a female black hagfish, Eptatretus deani
Drawing of Eptatretus polytrema
Drawing of a New Zealand hagfish
Two Pacific hagfish feeding on a dead sharpchin rockfish, Sebastes zacentrus, while one remains
in a curled position at the left of the photo
Simplified cyclostome phylogeny based on the work of Shigeru Kuratani and Shigehiro Kuraku; † indicates extinct
Kkomjangeo bokkeum (꼼장어 볶음), Korean stir-fried fish dish made with the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri

Hagfish, of the class Myxini (also known as Hyperotreti) and order Myxiniformes, are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).