A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft configuration with a single mainplane, in contrast to a biplane or other types of multiplanes, which have multiple planes.- Monoplane
The Bleriot VIII design of 1908 was an early aircraft design that had the modern monoplane tractor configuration.- Fixed-wing aircraft
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Fighter aircraft are fixed-wing military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat.
By World War II, most fighters were all-metal monoplanes armed with batteries of machine guns or cannons and some were capable of speeds approaching 400 mph. Most fighters up to this point had one engine, but a number of twin-engine fighters were built; however they were found to be outmatched against single-engine fighters and were relegated to other tasks, such as night fighters equipped with primitive radar sets.
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other.
While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a monoplane wing.
For fixed-wing aircraft, ground effect is the reduced aerodynamic drag that an aircraft's wings generate when they are close to a fixed surface.
Low winged aircraft are more affected by ground effect than high wing aircraft.
The wing configuration of a fixed-wing aircraft (including both gliders and powered aeroplanes) is its arrangement of lifting and related surfaces.
Monoplane: one wing plane. Since the 1930s most aeroplanes have been monoplanes. The wing may be mounted at various positions relative to the fuselage: