A report on Fixed-wing aircraft and Takeoff

A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft
An F/A-18 taking off from an aircraft carrier
Delta (triangular) kite
An Embraer E-175 taking off
Boys flying a kite in 1828 Bavaria, by Johann Michael Voltz
Takeoff of a hot air balloon
Le Bris and his glider, Albatros II, photographed by Nadar, 1868
Three airliners taking off simultaneously (note similar pitch attitudes)
Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville Wright over Huffman Prairie, 4 October 1905
View from a Jetstar A321 shortly after departure at Melbourne
Santos-Dumont's self-propelled 14-bis on an old postcard
A Boeing 737-800 retracting its undercarriages during takeoff
Curtiss NC-4 flying boat after it completed the first crossing of the Atlantic in 1919, standing next to a fixed-wing heavier-than-air aircraft
Tow line and towing aircraft seen from the cockpit of a glider
Aircraft parked on the ground in Afghanistan
The Harrier Jump Jet, a VTOL aircraft
A glider (sailplane) being winch-launched
Ultralight "airchair" Goat 1 glider
A 1943 USAAF Waco CG-4A
Hang gliding
A kite in flight
Chinese dragon kite more than one hundred feet long which flew in the Berkeley, California, kite festival in 2000
A quad-line traction kite, commonly used as a power source for kite surfing
Train of connected kites
The IAI Heron is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a twin-boom configuration
The An-225 Mriya, the largest airplane in the world, which can carry a 250-tonne payload, has two vertical stabilizers
Captured Morane-Saulnier L wire-braced parasol monoplane
Two Dassault Mirage G prototypes, one with wings swept (top)
The US-produced B-2 Spirit, a strategic bomber capable of intercontinental missions, has a flying wing configuration
Computer-generated model of the Boeing X-48
The Martin Aircraft Company X-24 was built as part of a 1963–1975 experimental US military program
Canards on the Saab Viggen
Typical light aircraft (Cessna 150M) cockpit with control yokes
The six basic flight instruments. Top row (left to right): airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, altimeter. Bottom row (left to right): turn coordinator, heading indicator, vertical speed indicator.

Vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft include fixed-wing aircraft that can hover, take off and land vertically as well as helicopters and other aircraft with powered rotors, such as tiltrotors.

- Takeoff

A seaplane is a fixed-wing aircraft capable of taking off and landing (alighting) on water.

- Fixed-wing aircraft
A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is the most produced aircraft in history.

Aircraft

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Vehicle or machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

Vehicle or machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is the most produced aircraft in history.
The Mil Mi-8 is the most-produced helicopter in history.
Hot air balloons
Airship USS Akron over Manhattan in the 1930s
An Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger airliner
Aircraft parked on the ground in Afghanistan
An autogyro
X-24B lifting body
Sailplane (Rolladen-Schneider LS4)
A turboprop-engined DeHavilland Twin Otter adapted as a floatplane
Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor
Airframe diagram for an AgustaWestland AW101 helicopter
The Boeing 777-200LR is one of the longest-range airliners, capable of flights of more than halfway around the world.
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The empennage of a Boeing 747-200
Boeing B-17E in flight
Agusta A109 helicopter of the Swiss air rescue service
A model aircraft, weighing six grams

Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, and rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings.

The range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by the time it can remain airborne.

Natural flight by a brown pelican

Flight

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Process by which an object moves through a space without contacting any planetary surface, either within an atmosphere or through the vacuum of outer space (i.e. spaceflight).

Process by which an object moves through a space without contacting any planetary surface, either within an atmosphere or through the vacuum of outer space (i.e. spaceflight).

Natural flight by a brown pelican
Human-invented flight: a Royal Jordanian Airlines Boeing 787
An airship flies because the upward force, from air displacement, is equal to or greater than the force of gravity
Female mallard duck
Tau emerald dragonfly
Kea
Mechanical flight: A Robinson R22 Beta helicopter
The International Space Station in earth orbit
Lighter-than-air airships are able to fly without any major input of energy
Main forces acting on a heavier-than-air aircraft
Forces on an aerofoil cross section
Lift is defined as the component of the aerodynamic force that is perpendicular to the flow direction, and drag is the component that is parallel to the flow direction
Speed and drag relationships for a typical aircraft
Pitch
Yaw
Roll
The upward tilt of the wings and tailplane of an aircraft, as seen on this Boeing 737, is called dihedral angle

A heavier than air craft, known as an aerodyne, includes flighted animals and insects, fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft.

If the thrust-to-weight ratio times the lift-to-drag ratio is greater than local gravity then takeoff using aerodynamic lift is possible.

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Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft)

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Science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

Science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

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The Antonov An-225 has anhedral wings, which make it less stable but more manoeuvrable

A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA).

Takeoff

Trailing edge flaps extended on the right on a typical airliner (an Airbus A300). Leading edge slats are also extended, on the left.

Flap (aeronautics)

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High-lift device used to reduce the stalling speed of an aircraft wing at a given weight.

High-lift device used to reduce the stalling speed of an aircraft wing at a given weight.

Trailing edge flaps extended on the right on a typical airliner (an Airbus A300). Leading edge slats are also extended, on the left.
The three orange pods are fairings streamlining the flap track mechanisms. The flaps (two on each side, on the Airbus A319) lie directly above these.
Flaps during ground roll after landing, with spoilers up, increasing drag.
North American T-6 trainer, showing its split flaps
Flaps and high lift devices. Gurney flap exaggerated for clarity. Blown flap skipped as it is modified from any other type. Pale lines indicate line of movement, and green indicates flap setting used during dive.
Plain flap at full deflection.
Split flap on a World War II bomber
Double slotted Fowler flaps extended for landing
Krueger flaps and triple-slotted trailing-edge flaps of a Boeing 747 extended for landing
Junkers flaps, doubling as ailerons.

Flaps are usually mounted on the wing trailing edges of a fixed-wing aircraft.

Depending on the aircraft type, flaps may be partially extended for takeoff.

An airliner flaring at London Heathrow Airport (Air Jamaica Airbus A340-300)

Takeoff and landing

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Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.

Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.

An airliner flaring at London Heathrow Airport (Air Jamaica Airbus A340-300)
A landing Qantas Boeing 747-400 passes close to houses on the boundary of London Heathrow Airport, England
A mute swan alighting. Note the ruffled feathers on top of the wings indicate that the swan is flying at the stalling speed. The extended and splayed feathers act as lift augmenters in the same way as an aircraft's slats and flaps.
An unusual landing; a Piper J3C-65 Cub lands on a trailer as part of an airshow.
Catapult launches aboard USS Ronald Reagan

Conventional airplanes accelerate along the ground until sufficient lift is generated for takeoff, and reverse the process to land.

Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft includes fixed-wing aircraft that can hover, take off and land vertically as well as helicopters and other aircraft with powered rotors, such as tiltrotors.