Fixed-wing aircraft

A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft
Delta (triangular) kite
Boys flying a kite in 1828 Bavaria, by Johann Michael Voltz
Le Bris and his glider, Albatros II, photographed by Nadar, 1868
Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville Wright over Huffman Prairie, 4 October 1905
Santos-Dumont's self-propelled 14-bis on an old postcard
Curtiss NC-4 flying boat after it completed the first crossing of the Atlantic in 1919, standing next to a fixed-wing heavier-than-air aircraft
Aircraft parked on the ground in Afghanistan
A glider (sailplane) being winch-launched
Ultralight "airchair" Goat 1 glider
A 1943 USAAF Waco CG-4A
Hang gliding
A kite in flight
Chinese dragon kite more than one hundred feet long which flew in the Berkeley, California, kite festival in 2000
A quad-line traction kite, commonly used as a power source for kite surfing
Train of connected kites
The IAI Heron is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a twin-boom configuration
The An-225 Mriya, the largest airplane in the world, which can carry a 250-tonne payload, has two vertical stabilizers
Captured Morane-Saulnier L wire-braced parasol monoplane
Two Dassault Mirage G prototypes, one with wings swept (top)
The US-produced B-2 Spirit, a strategic bomber capable of intercontinental missions, has a flying wing configuration
Computer-generated model of the Boeing X-48
The Martin Aircraft Company X-24 was built as part of a 1963–1975 experimental US military program
Canards on the Saab Viggen
Typical light aircraft (Cessna 150M) cockpit with control yokes
The six basic flight instruments. Top row (left to right): airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, altimeter. Bottom row (left to right): turn coordinator, heading indicator, vertical speed indicator.

Heavier-than-air flying machine, such as an airplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

- Fixed-wing aircraft
A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft

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Alpha

American-made X-24A, M2-F3 and HL-10 lifting bodies

Lifting body

American-made X-24A, M2-F3 and HL-10 lifting bodies
The Martin Aircraft Company X-24 built as part of a 1963 to 1975 experimental US military program
Burnelli General Airborne Transport XCG-16, a lifting body aircraft (1944)
Wainfan Facetmobile FMX-4 homebuilt lifting-body aircraft, photographed from above in flight

A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.

The Northrop B-2 Spirit stealth bomber

Flying wing

The Northrop B-2 Spirit stealth bomber
A Northrop N-1M on display at the National Air and Space Museum's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center
The German Horten Ho 229 flew during the last days of World War II and was the first jet powered flying wing.
The Northrop YB-35 bomber prototype began its development during World War II.
The Northrop YB-49 was the YB-35 bomber converted to jet power.
Part of a Horten Ho 229 V3, unrestored as of 2007, at the Smithsonian's Paul Garber Facility
Bi-directional flying wing, top-down view

A flying wing is a tailless fixed-wing aircraft that has no definite fuselage, with its crew, payload, fuel, and equipment housed inside the main wing structure.

A Saab 37 Viggen, the first modern canard aircraft to go into production

Canard (aeronautics)

A Saab 37 Viggen, the first modern canard aircraft to go into production
The 1906 Santos-Dumont 14-bis
The Wright Flyer of 1903 was a canard biplane
Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender
The Kyūshū J7W1 Shinden (scale model)
XB-70 Valkyrie experimental bomber
Canards visible on a JAS 39 Gripen
Canards on a Su-47
Su-34, with canards
Rutan Long-EZ, with high-aspect-ratio lifting canard and suspended luggage pods
The control canard on an RAF Typhoon in flight
Pterodactyl Ascender II+2 with stabilizing canard
Su-33s with canard
Tu-144 with the retractable canards deployed and nose drooped
A Dassault Rafale in high angle-of-attack flight
The Beechcraft Starship has variable-sweep foreplanes.
B-1B Lancer showing left hand ride-control vane at nose

In aeronautics, a canard is a wing configuration in which a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft or a weapon.

Discovery, a Space Shuttle orbiter in orbit around Earth.

Spaceplane

Vehicle that can fly and glide like an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere and maneuver like a spacecraft in outer space.

Vehicle that can fly and glide like an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere and maneuver like a spacecraft in outer space.

Discovery, a Space Shuttle orbiter in orbit around Earth.
Landing of, a crewed orbital spaceplane
Buran spaceplane rear showing rocket engine nozzles, attitude control thrusters, aerodynamic surfaces, and heat shielding
An X-15 in flight
United States Gemini tested the use of a Rogallo wing rather than a parachute. August 1964.
United States STS concepts, circa 1970s
Illustration of NASP taking off
MiG-105 crewed aerodynamics test vehicle
An artist's depiction of HOTOL

Orbital spaceplanes tend to be more similar to conventional spacecraft, while sub-orbital spaceplanes tend to be more similar to fixed-wing aircraft.

The horizontal stabilizer is the fixed horizontal surface of the empennage

Tailplane

The horizontal stabilizer is the fixed horizontal surface of the empennage
Tailplane (in shadow) of an easyJet Airbus A319

A tailplane, also known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes.

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Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft)

Science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

Science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

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A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA).

Sopwith Triplane in flight (2014)

Triplane

Sopwith Triplane in flight (2014)
Front view of a triplane
A scale model of a Caproni Ca.60 flying boat.
A British Roe III Triplane in the United States in September 1910 with its designer, Alliot Verdon Roe, in the cockpit.
Bousson-Borgnis canard triplane
The Sopwith Triplane, the first triplane to see service in World War I.
A flyable reproduction of the Fokker Dr.I of World War I, the best known triplane.
A Caproni Ca.48 airliner.
Triplane glider BrO-18 Boružė by Br. Oškinis, 1975. Lithuanian Aviation Museum
The Caproni Ca.60 Noviplano in 1921.

A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three vertically stacked wing planes.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle being tested in the hush house at 
Florida Air National Guard base

Jet engine

Type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

Type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle being tested in the hush house at 
Florida Air National Guard base
U.S. Air Force F-15E Strike Eagles
Jet engine during take-off showing visible hot exhaust (Germanwings Airbus A319)
The Whittle W.2/700 engine flew in the Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a turbojet engine, and the Gloster Meteor
Heinkel He 178, the world's first aircraft to fly purely on turbojet power
A cutaway of the Junkers Jumo 004 engine
Gloster Meteor F.3s. The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during World War II.
A JT9D turbofan jet engine installed on a Boeing 747 aircraft.
Turbojet engine
Schematic diagram illustrating the operation of a low-bypass turbofan engine.
Rocket engine propulsion
A pump jet schematic.
Typical combustion efficiency of an aircraft gas turbine over the operational range.
Typical combustion stability limits of an aircraft gas turbine.
Specific impulse as a function of speed for different jet types with kerosene fuel (hydrogen Isp would be about twice as high). Although efficiency plummets with speed, greater distances are covered. Efficiency per unit distance (per km or mile) is roughly independent of speed for jet engines as a group; however, airframes become inefficient at supersonic speeds.
Propulsive efficiency comparison for various gas turbine engine configurations
Airbus A340-300 Electronic centralised aircraft monitor (ECAM) Display

The legacy of the axial-flow engine is seen in the fact that practically all jet engines on fixed-wing aircraft have had some inspiration from this design.

The 1902 Wright Glider shows its lift by pulling up

Lift (force)

Object exerts a force on it.

Object exerts a force on it.

The 1902 Wright Glider shows its lift by pulling up
Lift is defined as the component of the aerodynamic force that is perpendicular to the flow direction, and drag is the component that is parallel to the flow direction.
A cross-section of a wing defines an airfoil shape.
When an airfoil generates lift, it deflects air downwards, and to do this it must exert a downward force on the air. Newton's third law requires that the air must exert an equal upward force on the airfoil.
An illustration of the incorrect equal transit-time explanation of airfoil lift.
Streamlines and streamtubes around an airfoil generating lift. Note the narrower streamtubes above and the wider streamtubes below.
Angle of attack of an airfoil
An airfoil with camber compared to a symmetrical airfoil
Airflow separating from a wing at a high angle of attack
Flow around an airfoil: the dots move with the flow. The black dots are on time slices, which split into two – an upper and lower part – at the leading edge. A marked speed difference between the upper-and lower-surface streamlines is shown most clearly in the image animation, with the upper markers arriving at the trailing edge long before the lower ones. Colors of the dots indicate streamlines.
Pressure field around an airfoil. The lines are isobars of equal pressure along their length. The arrows show the pressure differential from high (red) to low (blue) and hence also the net force which causes the air to accelerate in that direction.
Comparison of a non-lifting flow pattern around an airfoil; and a lifting flow pattern consistent with the Kutta condition in which the flow leaves the trailing edge smoothly
Circulation component of the flow around an airfoil
Cross-section of an airplane wing-body combination showing the isobars of the three-dimensional lifting flow
Cross-section of an airplane wing-body combination showing velocity vectors of the three-dimensional lifting flow
Euler computation of a tip vortex rolling up from the trailed vorticity sheet
Planview of a wing showing the horseshoe vortex system
Control volumes of different shapes that have been used in analyzing the momentum balance in the 2D flow around a lifting airfoil. The airfoil is assumed to exert a downward force −L' per unit span on the air, and the proportions in which that force is manifested as momentum fluxes and pressure differences at the outer boundary are indicated for each different shape of control volume.
Illustration of the distribution of higher-than-ambient pressure on the ground under an airplane in subsonic flight

Lift is mostly associated with the wings of fixed-wing aircraft, although it is more widely generated by many other streamlined bodies such as propellers, kites, helicopter rotors, racing car wings, maritime sails, wind turbines, and by sailboat keels, ship's rudders, and hydrofoils in water.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 jet engine being tested. This engine produces a jet of gas to generate thrust. Its purpose is to propel a jet airplane. This particular model turbofan engine powers McDonnell Douglas F-15 and General Dynamics F-16 fighters both.

Thrust

Reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

Reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 jet engine being tested. This engine produces a jet of gas to generate thrust. Its purpose is to propel a jet airplane. This particular model turbofan engine powers McDonnell Douglas F-15 and General Dynamics F-16 fighters both.

A fixed-wing aircraft propulsion system generates forward thrust when air is pushed in the direction opposite to flight.