A report on Fixed-wing aircraft

A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft
Delta (triangular) kite
Boys flying a kite in 1828 Bavaria, by Johann Michael Voltz
Le Bris and his glider, Albatros II, photographed by Nadar, 1868
Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville Wright over Huffman Prairie, 4 October 1905
Santos-Dumont's self-propelled 14-bis on an old postcard
Curtiss NC-4 flying boat after it completed the first crossing of the Atlantic in 1919, standing next to a fixed-wing heavier-than-air aircraft
Aircraft parked on the ground in Afghanistan
A glider (sailplane) being winch-launched
Ultralight "airchair" Goat 1 glider
A 1943 USAAF Waco CG-4A
Hang gliding
A kite in flight
Chinese dragon kite more than one hundred feet long which flew in the Berkeley, California, kite festival in 2000
A quad-line traction kite, commonly used as a power source for kite surfing
Train of connected kites
The IAI Heron is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a twin-boom configuration
The An-225 Mriya, the largest airplane in the world, which can carry a 250-tonne payload, has two vertical stabilizers
Captured Morane-Saulnier L wire-braced parasol monoplane
Two Dassault Mirage G prototypes, one with wings swept (top)
The US-produced B-2 Spirit, a strategic bomber capable of intercontinental missions, has a flying wing configuration
Computer-generated model of the Boeing X-48
The Martin Aircraft Company X-24 was built as part of a 1963–1975 experimental US military program
Canards on the Saab Viggen
Typical light aircraft (Cessna 150M) cockpit with control yokes
The six basic flight instruments. Top row (left to right): airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, altimeter. Bottom row (left to right): turn coordinator, heading indicator, vertical speed indicator.

Heavier-than-air flying machine, such as an airplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

- Fixed-wing aircraft
A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft

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Sopwith Triplane in flight (2014)

Triplane

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Sopwith Triplane in flight (2014)
Front view of a triplane
A scale model of a Caproni Ca.60 flying boat.
A British Roe III Triplane in the United States in September 1910 with its designer, Alliot Verdon Roe, in the cockpit.
Bousson-Borgnis canard triplane
The Sopwith Triplane, the first triplane to see service in World War I.
A flyable reproduction of the Fokker Dr.I of World War I, the best known triplane.
A Caproni Ca.48 airliner.
Triplane glider BrO-18 Boružė by Br. Oškinis, 1975. Lithuanian Aviation Museum
The Caproni Ca.60 Noviplano in 1921.

A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three vertically stacked wing planes.

The horizontal stabilizer is the fixed horizontal surface of the empennage

Tailplane

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The horizontal stabilizer is the fixed horizontal surface of the empennage
Tailplane (in shadow) of an easyJet Airbus A319

A tailplane, also known as a horizontal stabiliser, is a small lifting surface located on the tail (empennage) behind the main lifting surfaces of a fixed-wing aircraft as well as other non-fixed-wing aircraft such as helicopters and gyroplanes.

ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky"

Tupolev ANT-20

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ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky"
Vasily Kuptsov, Maxim Gorky ANT-20 (1934), Russian Museum, St. Petersburg
Aeroflot's ANT-20bis

The Tupolev ANT-20 Maxim Gorky (Туполев АНТ-20 "Максим Горький", sometimes romanized as Maksim Gorki) was a Soviet eight-engine aircraft, the largest in the world during the 1930s.

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Flight dynamics (fixed-wing aircraft)

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Science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

Science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions.

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The Antonov An-225 has anhedral wings, which make it less stable but more manoeuvrable

A fixed-wing aircraft increases or decreases the lift generated by the wings when it pitches nose up or down by increasing or decreasing the angle of attack (AOA).

Van's RV-14 cutaway showing its airframe

Airframe

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Aircraft is known as the airframe. This structure is typically considered to include the fuselage, undercarriage, empennage and wings, and excludes the propulsion system.

Aircraft is known as the airframe. This structure is typically considered to include the fuselage, undercarriage, empennage and wings, and excludes the propulsion system.

Van's RV-14 cutaway showing its airframe
Four types of airframe construction: (1) Truss with canvas, (2) Truss with corrugate plate, (3) Monocoque construction, (4) Semi-monocoque construction.
Wellington Mark X showing the geodesic airframe construction and the level of punishment it could withstand while maintaining airworthiness
Rough interior of a Boeing 747 airframe
Wing structure with ribs and one spar
DH106 Comet 3 G-ANLO demonstrating at the 1954 Farnborough Airshow

Modern airframe history began in the United States when a 1903 wood biplane made by Orville and Wilbur Wright showed the potential of fixed-wing designs.

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Multiplane (aeronautics)

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The Maxim Flying Machine with additional surfaces attached.

In aviation, a multiplane is a fixed-wing aircraft-configuration featuring multiple wing planes.

Trailing edge flaps extended on the right on a typical airliner (an Airbus A300). Leading edge slats are also extended, on the left.

Flap (aeronautics)

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High-lift device used to reduce the stalling speed of an aircraft wing at a given weight.

High-lift device used to reduce the stalling speed of an aircraft wing at a given weight.

Trailing edge flaps extended on the right on a typical airliner (an Airbus A300). Leading edge slats are also extended, on the left.
The three orange pods are fairings streamlining the flap track mechanisms. The flaps (two on each side, on the Airbus A319) lie directly above these.
Flaps during ground roll after landing, with spoilers up, increasing drag.
North American T-6 trainer, showing its split flaps
Flaps and high lift devices. Gurney flap exaggerated for clarity. Blown flap skipped as it is modified from any other type. Pale lines indicate line of movement, and green indicates flap setting used during dive.
Plain flap at full deflection.
Split flap on a World War II bomber
Double slotted Fowler flaps extended for landing
Krueger flaps and triple-slotted trailing-edge flaps of a Boeing 747 extended for landing
Junkers flaps, doubling as ailerons.

Flaps are usually mounted on the wing trailing edges of a fixed-wing aircraft.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle being tested in the hush house at 
Florida Air National Guard base

Jet engine

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Type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

Type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.

A Pratt & Whitney F100 turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle being tested in the hush house at 
Florida Air National Guard base
U.S. Air Force F-15E Strike Eagles
Jet engine during take-off showing visible hot exhaust (Germanwings Airbus A319)
The Whittle W.2/700 engine flew in the Gloster E.28/39, the first British aircraft to fly with a turbojet engine, and the Gloster Meteor
Heinkel He 178, the world's first aircraft to fly purely on turbojet power
A cutaway of the Junkers Jumo 004 engine
Gloster Meteor F.3s. The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies' only jet aircraft to achieve combat operations during World War II.
A JT9D turbofan jet engine installed on a Boeing 747 aircraft.
Turbojet engine
Schematic diagram illustrating the operation of a low-bypass turbofan engine.
Rocket engine propulsion
A pump jet schematic.
Typical combustion efficiency of an aircraft gas turbine over the operational range.
Typical combustion stability limits of an aircraft gas turbine.
Specific impulse as a function of speed for different jet types with kerosene fuel (hydrogen Isp would be about twice as high). Although efficiency plummets with speed, greater distances are covered. Efficiency per unit distance (per km or mile) is roughly independent of speed for jet engines as a group; however, airframes become inefficient at supersonic speeds.
Propulsive efficiency comparison for various gas turbine engine configurations
Airbus A340-300 Electronic centralised aircraft monitor (ECAM) Display

The legacy of the axial-flow engine is seen in the fact that practically all jet engines on fixed-wing aircraft have had some inspiration from this design.

DG-808B 18m self-launching

Motor glider

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DG-808B 18m self-launching
Carden-Baynes Auxiliary engine
Grob G109B touring motor glider, with fibre-reinforced plastic construction.
Motor glider SF25 Motorfalke over Ystad 2020.
Schleicher ASH 26e self-launching motor glider, with the engine mast extended. A Stemme S10 is in the background with the nose cone extended.
Powerplant from a Schleicher ASH 26E self-launching motor glider, mounted on a test stand for maintenance at Alexander Schleicher in Poppenhausen, Germany. Counter-clockwise from top left: propeller hub, mast with belt guide, radiator, Wankel engine, muffler shroud.
Bob Carlton's jet-powered glider.
A self-launching Eiri-Avion PIK-20E in flight with engine running.
Schempp-Hirth Nimbus 4M with engine running.
Fournier RF 4D in England (2009).

A motor glider is a fixed-wing aircraft that can be flown with or without engine power.

Clockwise from the top: The road to Bapaume in the aftermath of the Battle of the Somme, 1916

British Mark V tanks crossing the Hindenburg Line, 1918

 sinking after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, 1915

A British Vickers machine gun crew wearing gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, 1916

German Albatros D.III biplane fighters near Douai, France, 1917

World War I

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World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.

World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, began on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.

Clockwise from the top: The road to Bapaume in the aftermath of the Battle of the Somme, 1916

British Mark V tanks crossing the Hindenburg Line, 1918

 sinking after hitting a mine in the Dardanelles, 1915

A British Vickers machine gun crew wearing gas masks during the Battle of the Somme, 1916

German Albatros D.III biplane fighters near Douai, France, 1917
Rival military coalitions in 1914: Triple Entente in green; Triple Alliance in brown. Only the Triple Alliance was a formal "alliance"; the others listed were informal patterns of support.
, a, Germany's first response to the British Dreadnought
Sarajevo citizens reading a poster with the proclamation of the Austrian annexation in 1908
Traditionally thought to show the arrest of Gavrilo Princip (right), historians now believe this photo depicts an innocent bystander, Ferdinand Behr
Crowds on the streets in the aftermath of the anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo, 29 June 1914
Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910. Bosnia-Herzegovina was annexed in 1908.
Cheering crowds in London and Paris on the day war was declared.
Serbian Army Blériot XI "Oluj", 1915
German soldiers on the way to the front in 1914; at this stage, all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.
French bayonet charge during the Battle of the Frontiers; by the end of August, French casualties exceeded 260,000, including 75,000 dead.
World empires and colonies around 1914
The British Indian infantry divisions were withdrawn from France in December 1915, and sent to Mesopotamia.
Trenches of the 11th Cheshire Regiment at Ovillers-la-Boisselle, on the Somme, July 1916
Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench, first day on the Somme, 1916
Dead German soldiers at Somme 1916
King George V (front left) and a group of officials inspect a British munitions factory in 1917.
Battleships of the Hochseeflotte, 1917
U-155 exhibited near Tower Bridge in London, after the 1918 Armistice
Refugee transport from Serbia in Leibnitz, Styria, 1914
Bulgarian soldiers in a trench, preparing to fire against an incoming aeroplane
Austro-Hungarian troops executing captured Serbians, 1917. Serbia lost about 850,000 people during the war, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Australian troops charging near a Turkish trench during the Gallipoli Campaign
Mehmed V greeting Wilhelm II on his arrival at Constantinople
Kaiser Wilhelm II inspecting Turkish troops of the 15th Corps in East Galicia, Austria-Hungary (now Poland). Prince Leopold of Bavaria, the Supreme Commander of the German Army on the Eastern Front, is second from the left.
Russian forest trench at the Battle of Sarikamish, 1914–1915
Isonzo Offensives 1915-1917
Austro-Hungarian trench at 3,850 metres in the Ortler Alps, one of the most challenging fronts of the war
Romanian troops during the Battle of Mărășești, 1917
Emperor Nicholas II and Commander-in-Chief Nikolai Nikolaevich in the captured Przemysl. The Russian Siege of Przemyśl was the longest siege of the war.
"They shall not pass", a phrase typically associated with the defence of Verdun
President Wilson asking Congress to declare war on Germany, 2 April 1917
The Allied Avenue, 1917 painting by Childe Hassam, that depicts Manhattan's Fifth Avenue decorated with flags from Allied nations
French infantry advance on the Chemin des Dames, April 1917
Canadian Corps troops at the Battle of Vimy Ridge, 1917
10.5 cm Feldhaubitze 98/09 and Ottoman artillerymen at Hareira in 1917 before the Southern Palestine offensive
British artillery battery on Mount Scopus in the Battle of Jerusalem, 1917. Foreground, a battery of 16 heavy guns. Background, conical tents and support vehicles.
Ottoman troops during the Mesopotamian campaign
French soldiers under General Gouraud, with machine guns amongst the ruins of a cathedral near the Marne, 1918
British 55th (West Lancashire) Division soldiers blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918
Between April and November 1918, the Allies increased their front-line rifle strength while German strength fell by half.
Aerial view of ruins of Vaux-devant-Damloup, France, 1918
16th Bn (Canadian Scottish), advancing during the Battle of the Canal du Nord, 1918
An American major, piloting an observation balloon near the front, 1918
German Revolution, Kiel, 1918
Italian troops reach Trento during the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, 1918. Italy's victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front and secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Ferdinand Foch, second from right, pictured outside the carriage in Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war there. The carriage was later chosen by Nazi Germany as the symbolic setting of Pétain's June 1940 armistice.
The signing of the Treaty of Versailles in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, by Sir William Orpen
Greek prime minister Eleftherios Venizelos signing the Treaty of Sèvres
Dissolution of Austria-Hungary after war
Map of territorial changes in Europe after World WarI (as of 1923)
Czechoslovak Legion, Vladivostok, 1918
Transporting Ottoman wounded at Sirkeci
Emergency military hospital during the Spanish flu pandemic, which killed about 675,000 people in the United States alone, Camp Funston, Kansas, 1918
Tanks on parade in London at the end of World War I
A Russian armoured car, 1919
38-cm "Lange Max" of Koekelare (Leugenboom),the biggest gun in the world in 1917
A Canadian soldier with mustard gas burns, c. 1917–1918
British Vickers machine gun, 1917
The
Royal Air Force Sopwith Camel. In April 1917, the average life expectancy of a British pilot on the Western Front was 93 flying hours.
Luftstreitkräfte Fokker Dr.I being inspected by Manfred von Richthofen, also known as the Red Baron.
Mobile radio station in German South West Africa, using a hydrogen balloon to lift the antenna
Austro-Hungarian soldiers executing men and women in Serbia, 1916
HMS Baralong
French soldiers making a gas and flame attack on German trenches in Flanders
Armenians killed during the Armenian Genocide. Image taken from Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, written by Henry Morgenthau Sr. and published in 1918.
German prisoners in a French prison camp during the later part of the war
British prisoners guarded by Ottoman forces after the First Battle of Gaza in 1917
Poster urging women to join the British war effort, published by the Young Women's Christian Association
Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps First Contingent in Bermuda, winter 1914–1915, before joining 1 Lincolnshire Regiment in France in June 1915. The dozen remaining after Guedecourt on 25 September 1916, merged with a Second Contingent. The two contingents suffered 75% casualties.
Sackville Street (now O'Connell Street) after the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin
The Deserter, 1916: Anti-war cartoon depicting Jesus facing a firing squad with soldiers from five European countries
Possible execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies in 1917. The original French text accompanying this photograph notes, however, that the uniforms are those of 1914–15 and that the execution may be that of a spy at the beginning of the war.
Bolshevik leaders Lenin and Trotsky promised "Peace, Land and Bread" to the impoverished masses
Young men registering for conscription, New York City, 5 June 1917
Military recruitment in Melbourne, Australia, 1914
British volunteer recruits in London, August 1914
1917 political cartoon about the Zimmermann Telegram. The message was intercepted by the British; its publication caused outrage and contributed to the U.S. entry into World War I.
The Italian Redipuglia War Memorial, which contains the remains of 100,187 soldiers
A typical village war memorial to soldiers killed in World War I
A 1919 book for veterans, from the US War Department
Poster showing women workers, 1915
War memorial to soldiers of the 49th Bengalee Regiment (Bangali Platoon) in Kolkata, India, who died in the war.

Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya on 23 October 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year.