A report on Fixed-wing aircraft

A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft
Delta (triangular) kite
Boys flying a kite in 1828 Bavaria, by Johann Michael Voltz
Le Bris and his glider, Albatros II, photographed by Nadar, 1868
Wright Flyer III piloted by Orville Wright over Huffman Prairie, 4 October 1905
Santos-Dumont's self-propelled 14-bis on an old postcard
Curtiss NC-4 flying boat after it completed the first crossing of the Atlantic in 1919, standing next to a fixed-wing heavier-than-air aircraft
Aircraft parked on the ground in Afghanistan
A glider (sailplane) being winch-launched
Ultralight "airchair" Goat 1 glider
A 1943 USAAF Waco CG-4A
Hang gliding
A kite in flight
Chinese dragon kite more than one hundred feet long which flew in the Berkeley, California, kite festival in 2000
A quad-line traction kite, commonly used as a power source for kite surfing
Train of connected kites
The IAI Heron is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a twin-boom configuration
The An-225 Mriya, the largest airplane in the world, which can carry a 250-tonne payload, has two vertical stabilizers
Captured Morane-Saulnier L wire-braced parasol monoplane
Two Dassault Mirage G prototypes, one with wings swept (top)
The US-produced B-2 Spirit, a strategic bomber capable of intercontinental missions, has a flying wing configuration
Computer-generated model of the Boeing X-48
The Martin Aircraft Company X-24 was built as part of a 1963–1975 experimental US military program
Canards on the Saab Viggen
Typical light aircraft (Cessna 150M) cockpit with control yokes
The six basic flight instruments. Top row (left to right): airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, altimeter. Bottom row (left to right): turn coordinator, heading indicator, vertical speed indicator.

Heavier-than-air flying machine, such as an airplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the aircraft's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

- Fixed-wing aircraft
A Boeing 737 airliner is an example of a fixed-wing aircraft

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An Airbus A320 powered aircraft

Powered aircraft

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Aircraft that uses onboard propulsion with mechanical power generated by an aircraft engine of some kind.

Aircraft that uses onboard propulsion with mechanical power generated by an aircraft engine of some kind.

An Airbus A320 powered aircraft
A turboprop-engined Tupolev Tu-95
Gossamer Albatross, a human-powered aircraft
A jet-engined Boeing 777 taking off

A fixed-wing aircraft obtains lift from airflow over the wing resulting from motion due to forward thrust.

An airliner flaring at London Heathrow Airport (Air Jamaica Airbus A340-300)

Takeoff and landing

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Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.

Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.

An airliner flaring at London Heathrow Airport (Air Jamaica Airbus A340-300)
A landing Qantas Boeing 747-400 passes close to houses on the boundary of London Heathrow Airport, England
A mute swan alighting. Note the ruffled feathers on top of the wings indicate that the swan is flying at the stalling speed. The extended and splayed feathers act as lift augmenters in the same way as an aircraft's slats and flaps.
An unusual landing; a Piper J3C-65 Cub lands on a trailer as part of an airshow.
Catapult launches aboard USS Ronald Reagan

Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft includes fixed-wing aircraft that can hover, take off and land vertically as well as helicopters and other aircraft with powered rotors, such as tiltrotors.

Examples of airfoils in nature and in or on various vehicles. The dolphin flipper at bottom left obeys the same principles in a different fluid medium; it is an example of a hydrofoil.

Airfoil

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Cross-sectional shape of an object whose motion through a gas is capable of generating significant lift, such as a wing, a sail, or the blades of propeller, rotor, or turbine.

Cross-sectional shape of an object whose motion through a gas is capable of generating significant lift, such as a wing, a sail, or the blades of propeller, rotor, or turbine.

Examples of airfoils in nature and in or on various vehicles. The dolphin flipper at bottom left obeys the same principles in a different fluid medium; it is an example of a hydrofoil.
Streamlines around a NACA 0012 airfoil at moderate angle of attack
Lift and drag curves for a typical airfoil
Airfoil nomenclature
Different definitions of airfoil thickness
An airfoil designed for winglets (PSU 90-125WL)
An airfoil section is displayed at the tip of this Denney Kitfox aircraft, built in 1991.
Airfoil of a Kamov Ka-26 helicopter's lower rotor blade

The wings and stabilizers of fixed-wing aircraft, as well as helicopter rotor blades, are built with airfoil-shaped cross sections.

The "W" shaped control yoke of a Boeing 737. Note the checklists for before takeoff to landing in the middle.

Yoke (aeronautics)

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The "W" shaped control yoke of a Boeing 737. Note the checklists for before takeoff to landing in the middle.
Collection of control yokes at Boeing Future of Flight Museum: 747, 707, B-29, Trimotor. The former two yokes are "W" shaped, while the latter two are circular.
The cockpit of Concorde, which has an "M"-shaped yoke mounted on a control column
The cockpit of an Embraer ERJ with an "M"-shaped yoke
"W"/"U" style yoke in a Cessna 152 light aircraft, mounted on a horizontal tube protruding from the instrumental panel
Circular, steering-wheel type yoke in a 1940s Lisunov Li-2
Cirrus SR22 panel showing both side yokes
Cessna 162 Skycatcher instrument panel

A yoke, alternatively known as a control wheel or a control column, is a device used for piloting some fixed-wing aircraft.

A schematic image of three types of cantilever. The top example has a full moment connection (like a horizontal flagpole bolted to the side of a building). The middle example is created by an extension of a simple supported beam (such as the way a diving board is anchored and extends over the edge of a swimming pool). The bottom example is created by adding a Robin boundary condition to the beam element, which essentially adds an elastic spring to the end board. The middle and bottom example may be considered structurally equivalent, depending on the effective stiffness of the spring and beam element.

Cantilever

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Rigid structural element that extends horizontally and is supported at only one end.

Rigid structural element that extends horizontally and is supported at only one end.

A schematic image of three types of cantilever. The top example has a full moment connection (like a horizontal flagpole bolted to the side of a building). The middle example is created by an extension of a simple supported beam (such as the way a diving board is anchored and extends over the edge of a swimming pool). The bottom example is created by adding a Robin boundary condition to the beam element, which essentially adds an elastic spring to the end board. The middle and bottom example may be considered structurally equivalent, depending on the effective stiffness of the spring and beam element.
The pioneering Junkers J 1 all-metal monoplane of 1915, the first aircraft to fly with cantilever wings
de Havilland DH.88 Comet G-ACSS, winner of the Great Air Race of 1934, showing off its cantilever wing
SEM image of a used AFM cantilever
MEMS cantilever in resonance
The Forth Bridge, a cantilever truss bridge
This concrete bridge temporarily functions as a set of two balanced cantilevers during construction – with further cantilevers jutting out to support formwork.
Howrah Bridge in India, a cantilever bridge
A cantilevered balcony of the Fallingwater house, by Frank Lloyd Wright
A cantilevered railroad deck and fence on the Canton Viaduct
A cantilever barn in rural Tennessee
Cantilever barn at Cades Cove
A double jettied building in Cambridge, England
Cantilever occurring in the game "Jenga"
Cantilever facade of Riverplace Tower in Jacksonville, Florida, by Welton Becket and KBJ Architects
This radiograph of a "bridge" dental restoration features a cantilevered crown to the left.
Ronan Point: Structural failure of part of floors cantilevered from a central shaft.

The cantilever is commonly used in the wings of fixed-wing aircraft.

The first F-35 Lightning II of the 33rd Fighter Wing arriving at Eglin AFB

United States Air Force

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Air service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States.

Air service branch of the United States Armed Forces, and is one of the eight uniformed services of the United States.

The first F-35 Lightning II of the 33rd Fighter Wing arriving at Eglin AFB
An Air Force RQ-4 strategic reconnaissance aircraft
An Air Force KC-46 Pegasus refuels a C-17A Globemaster III
An Air Force A-10 demonstrating close air support at Nellis AFB
Test launch of a LGM-30 Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile from Vandenberg AFB
Combined Air Operations Center at Al Udeid Air Base
Roundels that have appeared on U.S. military aircraft
1.) 5/1917–2/1918
2.) 2/1918–8/1919
3.) 8/1919–5/1942
4.) 5/1942–6/1943
5.) 6/1943–9/1943
6.) 9/1943–1/1947
7.) 1/1947–
The SR-71 Blackbird was a Cold War reconnaissance plane.
The F-117 Nighthawk was a stealth attack aircraft (retired from service in April 2008).
A row of Douglas C-54 Skymasters during the Berlin Airlift in 1949
Various Air Force personnel pose during the Air Force's 74th birthday celebration at the Pentagon, September 17, 2021.
Organization of the United States Air Force within the Department of Defense
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Pararescuemen and a simulated "survivor" watch as an HH-60G Pave Hawk helicopter comes in for a landing
U.S. Air Force trainee demonstrating a butt stroke on a strike dummy as part of Basic Military Training.
USAF Airmen training at Lackland AFB
A-10 Thunderbolt II ground-attack aircraft
B-2 Spirit stealth bomber
A C-17 Globemaster III, the USAF's newest and most versatile transport plane
E-3 Sentry airborne warning and control system
F-22 Raptor stealth air superiority fighter
KC-10 Extender tri-jet air-to-air tanker
An MC-12W Liberty at Beale AFB
MQ-9 unmanned aerial vehicle
Lockheed U-2 spy plane
RQ-170 Sentinel stealth unmanned aerial vehicle reconnaissance aircraft
VC-25A (Air Force One)
A WC-130J Hercules from the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron
An unarmed Minuteman III ICBM shoots out of the silo during an operational test launch

Aeromedical evacuation forces can operate as far forward as fixed-wing aircraft are able to conduct airland operations.

Disc brake on a motorcycle

Brake

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Mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.

Mechanical device that inhibits motion by absorbing energy from a moving system.

Disc brake on a motorcycle
Rendering of a drum brake
Single pivot side-pull bicycle caliper brake
Brake booster from a Geo Storm.
Brake lever on a horse-drawn hearse

Most fixed-wing aircraft are fitted with wheel brakes on the undercarriage.

Diagram showing the face of the "three-pointer" sensitive aircraft altimeter displaying an altitude of 10180 ft. Reference pressure of about 29.92 inHg (1013 hPa) is showing in the Kollsman window

Altimeter

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Altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.

Altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.

Diagram showing the face of the "three-pointer" sensitive aircraft altimeter displaying an altitude of 10180 ft. Reference pressure of about 29.92 inHg (1013 hPa) is showing in the Kollsman window
Digital barometric pressure sensor for altitude measurement in consumer electronic applications
Digital wrist-mounted skydiving altimeter in logbook mode, displaying the last recorded jump profile.
Skydiver in free fall, making use of a hand-mounted altimeter. The analogue face is visible, showing colour-coded decision altitudes. The depicted altimeter is electronic, despite using an analogue display.
Speaking Altimeter with helmet for skydiving
An old altimeter intended for use in aircraft
A drum-type aircraft altimeter, showing the small Kollsman windows at the bottom left (hectopascals) and bottom right (inches of mercury) of the face.
Diagram showing the internal components of the sensitive aircraft altimeter.
The altimeter on this Piper PA-28 is seen on the top row of instruments, second from right

Audible altimeters (also known as "dytters", a genericised trademark of the first such product on the market). These are inserted into one's helmet, and emit a warning tone at a predefined altitude. Contemporary audibles have evolved significantly from their crude beginnings, and sport a vast array of functions, such as multiple tones at different altitudes, multiple saved profiles that can be switched quickly, electronic logbook with data transfer to a PC for later analysis, distinct free fall and canopy modes with different warning altitudes, swoop approach guiding tones, etc. Audibles are strictly auxiliary devices, and do not replace, but complement a visual altimeter which remains the primary tool for maintaining altitude awareness. The advent of modern skydiving disciplines such as freeflying, in which the ground might not be in one's field of view for long periods of time, has made the use of audibles nearly universal, and virtually all skydiving helmets come with one or more built-in ports in which an audible might be placed. Audibles are not recommended and often banned from use by student skydivers, who need to build up a proper altitude awareness regime for themselves.