Flagellin

Bacterial flagellindue to flagellin mutationsFLS2
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.wikipedia
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Flagellum

flagellaflagellatedflagellar
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.
The bacterial flagellum is made up of the protein flagellin.

TLR5

Toll-like Receptor 5TLR 5
Flagellin has also been shown to directly interact with TLR5 on T cells.
TLR5 is known to recognize bacterial flagellin from invading mobile bacteria.

Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
TLR11 in mouse intestine recognizes the flagellun protein flagellin, causing dimerization of the receptor, activation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines.

Arabidopsis thaliana

ArabidopsisA. thalianaThale cress
Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis thaliana functions via the receptor-like-kinase FLS2 (FLAGELLIN SENSING 2).
thaliana'' is FLS2 (Flagellin-Sensing2), which recognizes bacterial flagellin, a specialized organelle used by microorganisms for the purpose of motility, as well as the ligand flg22, which comprises the 22 amino acids recognized by FLS2.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.

Dalton (unit)

kDaDaDalton
It has a mass of about 30,000 to 60,000 daltons.

Helix

helicalheliceshelically
The structure of flagellin is responsible for the helical shape of the flagellar filament, which is important for its proper function.

N-terminus

N-terminalN terminusN-
The helical N- and C-termini of flagellin form the inner core of the flagellin protein, and is responsible for flagellin's ability to polymerize into a filament.

C-terminus

C-terminalC-terminal domainC terminus
The helical N- and C-termini of flagellin form the inner core of the flagellin protein, and is responsible for flagellin's ability to polymerize into a filament.

Polymer

polymershomopolymerpolymeric
The helical N- and C-termini of flagellin form the inner core of the flagellin protein, and is responsible for flagellin's ability to polymerize into a filament.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
Mammals often have acquired immune responses (T-cell and antibody responses) to flagellated bacterium, which occur frequently to flagellar antigens.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
Mammals often have acquired immune responses (T-cell and antibody responses) to flagellated bacterium, which occur frequently to flagellar antigens.

T cell

T cellsT-cellT-cells
Mammals often have acquired immune responses (T-cell and antibody responses) to flagellated bacterium, which occur frequently to flagellar antigens.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
Mammals often have acquired immune responses (T-cell and antibody responses) to flagellated bacterium, which occur frequently to flagellar antigens.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
Some bacteria are able to switch between multiple flagellin genes in order to evade this response.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MAPKMAP kinasemitogen-activated protein kinases
Mitogen-activated-protein-kinases (MAPK) acts as downstream signalling compounds, leading ultimately to PAMP-triggered immunity in which more than 900 genes are up-/down-regulated upon flg22 treatment.

FLS2

FSL2
FLS genes have been discovered to be involved in flagellin reception of bacteria.

Toll-like receptor 11

TLR11TLR 11
In mice, TLR11 has been shown to recognise flagellin and/or profilin present on certain microbes, it helps propagate a host immune response.

Phase variation

random phase variation
Salmonella use this technique to switch between different types of the protein flagellin.

Pyroptosis

pro-IL-1β
The initiation of pyroptosis in infected macrophages is caused by the recognition of flagellin components of Salmonella and Shigella species (and similar pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in other microbial pathogens) by NOD-like receptors (NLRs).

Chemotaxis

chemotacticchemoattractantchemotactic factor
The protein structure that makes up the flagellar filament, flagellin, is conserved among all flagellated bacteria.

Prokaryote

prokaryoticprokaryotesprokaryotic cells
Besides homologues of actin and tubulin (MreB and FtsZ), the helically arranged building-block of the flagellum, flagellin, is one of the most significant cytoskeletal proteins of bacteria, as it provides structural backgrounds of chemotaxis, the basic cell physiological response of bacteria.