Flagellum

flagellaflagellatedflagellarperitrichousbacterial flagellumflagellaeamphitrichousflagellar motorflagellar apparatusflagellate
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacteria and eukaryotic cells termed as flagellates.wikipedia
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Flagellate

flagellatesbiflagellateMastigophora
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacteria and eukaryotic cells termed as flagellates.
A flagellate is a cell or organism with one or more whip-like appendages called flagella.

Rotating locomotion in living systems

cartwheelingrollingrolling and wheeled creatures
However, true wheels and propellers—despite their utility in human vehicles—do not appear to play a significant role in the movement of living things (with the exception of certain flagella, which function like corkscrews).

Archaellum

archaella
The similar structure in the archaea functions in the same way but is structurally different and has been termed the archaellum.
The name was proposed in 2012 following studies that showed it to be evolutionarily and structurally different from the bacterial and eukaryotic flagella.

Cilium

ciliaciliatedciliary
Eukaryotic flagella are structurally identical to eukaryotic cilia, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function or length.
In eukaryotes, motile cilia and flagella together make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia.

Helicobacter pylori

H. pyloriantibiotic-resistant ''H. pyloribacteria
An example of a flagellated bacterium is the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori, which uses multiple flagella to propel itself through the mucus lining to reach the stomach epithelium.
Helicobacter pylori has four to six flagella at the same location; all gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter species are highly motile owing to flagella.

Undulipodium

undulipodia9+2 patterncilia
Aiming to emphasize the distinction between the bacterial flagella and the eukaryotic cilia and flagella, some authors attempted to replace the name of these two eukaryotic structures with "undulipodia" (e.g., all papers by Margulis since the 1970s) or "cilia" for both (e.g., Hülsmann, 1992; Adl et al., 2012; most papers of Cavalier-Smith), preserving "flagella" for the bacterial structure.
It is basically synonymous to flagella and cilia which are differing terms for similar molecular structures used on different types of cells.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacteria and eukaryotic cells termed as flagellates. An example of a flagellated bacterium is the ulcer-causing Helicobacter pylori, which uses multiple flagella to propel itself through the mucus lining to reach the stomach epithelium.
Flagella are rigid protein structures, about 20 nanometres in diameter and up to 20 micrometres in length, that are used for motility.

Eukaryote

Eukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotes
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacteria and eukaryotic cells termed as flagellates.
Many eukaryotes have long slender motile cytoplasmic projections, called flagella, or similar structures called cilia.

Flagellin

Bacterial flagellindue to flagellin mutationsFLS2
The bacterial flagellum is made up of the protein flagellin.
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.

Gram-positive bacteria

Gram-positiveGram positivegram-positive bacterium
Gram-positive organisms have two of these basal body rings, one in the peptidoglycan layer and one in the plasma membrane.
Also, only some species are flagellates, and when they do have flagella, have only two basal body rings to support them, whereas gram-negative have four.

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica

Salmonella typhimuriumSalmonella typhiSalmonella enteritidis
In most bacteria that have been studied, including the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Caulobacter crescentus, and Vibrio alginolyticus, the filament is made up of 11 protofilaments approximately parallel to the filament axis.
enterica' is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica'', the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium.

Organelle

organellescell organellescell organelle
The primary function of a flagellum is that of locomotion, but it also often functions as a sensory organelle, being sensitive to chemicals and temperatures outside the cell.

Basal body

basal bodieskinetosomeblepharoplast
A shaft runs between the hook and the basal body, passing through protein rings in the cell's membrane that act as bearings.
A basal body (synonymous with basal granule, kinetosome, and in older cytological literature with blepharoplast) is a protein structure found at the base of a eukaryotic undulipodium (cilium or flagellum).

Escherichia coli

E. coliE.coliE-coli
In most bacteria that have been studied, including the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Caulobacter crescentus, and Vibrio alginolyticus, the filament is made up of 11 protofilaments approximately parallel to the filament axis. Through use of their flagella, E. coli is able to move rapidly towards attractants and away from repellents, by means of a biased random walk, with 'runs' and 'tumbles' brought about by rotating its flagellum counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively.
Strains that possess flagella are motile.

Vibrio

vibriosis Vibrio Illnessvibrio infection
The engine is powered by proton motive force, i.e., by the flow of protons (hydrogen ions) across the bacterial cell membrane due to a concentration gradient set up by the cell's metabolism (Vibrio species have two kinds of flagella, lateral and polar, and some are driven by a sodium ion pump rather than a proton pump ).
All members of the genus are motile and have polar flagella with sheaths.

Fimbria (bacteriology)

fimbriaefimbriafimbriae, bacterial
Fimbriae and pili are also thin appendages, but have different functions and are usually smaller.
In bacteriology, a fimbria (Latin for 'fringe', plural fimbriae), also referred to as an "attachment pilus" by some scientists, is an appendage that can be found on many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria that is thinner and shorter than a flagellum.

P ring

Gram-negative organisms have four such rings: the L ring associates with the lipopolysaccharides, the P ring associates with peptidoglycan layer, the M ring is embedded in the plasma membrane, and the S ring is directly attached to the plasma membrane.
The P ring forms part of the basal body of the bacterial appendage known as the flagellum.

Caulobacter crescentus

CaulobacterCaulobacter ethensis-2.0C. crescentus
In most bacteria that have been studied, including the Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Caulobacter crescentus, and Vibrio alginolyticus, the filament is made up of 11 protofilaments approximately parallel to the filament axis.
One daughter is a mobile "swarmer" cell that has a single flagellum at one cell pole that provides swimming motility for chemotaxis.

MotA

Mot complex
The bacterial flagellum is driven by a rotary engine (Mot complex) made up of protein, located at the flagellum's anchor point on the inner cell membrane.
It is a component of the flagellar motor.

Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negativeGram negativeGram-negative bacterium
Gram-negative organisms have four such rings: the L ring associates with the lipopolysaccharides, the P ring associates with peptidoglycan layer, the M ring is embedded in the plasma membrane, and the S ring is directly attached to the plasma membrane.

Spirochaete

spirocheteSpirochaetesSpirochaetales
Spirochetes, in contrast, have flagella arising from opposite poles of the cell, and are located within the periplasmic space as shown by breaking the outer-membrane and more recently by electron cryotomography microscopy.
Spirochaetes are distinguished from other bacterial phyla by the location of their flagella, sometimes called axial filaments, which run lengthwise between the bacterial inner membrane and outer membrane in periplasmic space.

Type three secretion system

type III secretion systemtype III secretionType 3 Secretion System
The similarities between bacterial flagella and bacterial secretory system structures and proteins provide scientific evidence supporting the theory that bacterial flagella evolved from the type-three secretion system.
Its structure shows many similarities with bacterial flagella (long, rigid, extracellular structures used for motility).

Chemotaxis

chemotacticchemoattractantchemotactic factor
Through use of their flagella, E. coli is able to move rapidly towards attractants and away from repellents, by means of a biased random walk, with 'runs' and 'tumbles' brought about by rotating its flagellum counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively.

Motility

motilenonmotilenon-motile
Early single-cell organisms' need for motility (mobility) support that the more mobile flagella would be selected by evolution first, but the TTSS evolving from the flagellum can be seen as 'reductive evolution', and receives no topological support from the phylogenetic trees.

Flagellar motor switch

flagellar switch-complex
The direction of rotation can be changed by the flagellar motor switch almost instantaneously, caused by a slight change in the position of a protein, FliG, in the rotor.
In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium it regulates the direction of flagellar rotation and hence controls swimming behaviour.