Flammer syndrome

Acute angle closure glaucoma of a person's right eye (shown at left). Note the mid-sized pupil, which is non-reactive to light, and redness of the white part of the eye.

Described clinical entity comprising a complex of clinical features caused mainly by dysregulation of the blood supply.

- Flammer syndrome

5 related topics



Low blood pressure.

Hypotension is a feature of Flammer syndrome, which is characterized by cold hands and feet and predisposes to normal tension glaucoma.


Group of eye diseases that result in damage to the optic nerve and cause vision loss.

Acute angle closure glaucoma of a person's right eye (shown at left). Note the mid-sized pupil, which is non-reactive to light, and redness of the white part of the eye.
Photo showing conjunctival vessels dilated at the corneal edge (ciliary flush, circumcorneal flush) and hazy cornea characteristic of acute angle closure glaucoma
Laser Doppler imaging reveals arterial blood flow reversal in neovascular glaucoma. The color change of the Doppler image in the central retinal artery during the cardiac cycle indicates arterial flow reversal.
Human eye cross-sectional view
Optic nerve in advanced glaucoma disease
Bjerrums area and types of scotomas on the visual field
Conventional surgery to treat glaucoma makes a new opening in the trabecular meshwork, which helps fluid to leave the eye and lowers intraocular pressure.

Individuals with a family history of NTG, those of Japanese ancestry, those with a history of systemic heart disease and those with Flammer syndrome are at an elevated risk of developing NTG.

Normal tension glaucoma

Eye disease, a neuropathy of the optic nerve, that shows all the characteristics of primary open angle glaucoma except one: the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) - the classic hallmark of glaucoma - is missing.

The left optic nerve and the optic tracts.

Normal tension glaucoma is in many cases closely associated with general issues of blood circulation and of organ perfusion like arterial hypotension, metabolic syndrome, and Flammer syndrome.

Josef Flammer

Swiss ophthalmologist and long-time director of the Eye Clinic at Basel University Hospital.

Eye examination with the aid of a slit lamp

Flammer noted that people with a primary vascular dysregulation have other symptoms and signs; this led to the establishment of the term Flammer syndrome.


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Josef Flammer, Swiss ophthalmologist (after whom Flammer syndrome is named)