Flash memory

flashNANDFlash ROMflash storageNAND flash memoryNOR flashNAND Flashflash RAMflash memoriesflash media
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer memory storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.wikipedia
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Non-volatile memory

non-volatilenon-volatile storagenon-volatile memories
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer memory storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
Examples of non-volatile memory include flash memory, read-only memory (ROM), ferroelectric RAM, most types of magnetic computer storage devices (e.g. hard disk drives, floppy disks, and magnetic tape), optical discs, and early computer storage methods such as paper tape and punched cards.

Solid-state storage

solid-stateflash-based storage
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer memory storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
Solid-state storage devices typically store data using electrically-programmable non-volatile flash memory, although some devices use battery-backed volatile random-access memory (RAM).

USB flash drive

flash driveUSB flash drivesUSB drive
The NAND type is found primarily in memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives (those produced in 2009 or later), and similar products, for general storage and transfer of data.
A USB flash drive is a data storage device that includes flash memory with an integrated USB interface.

Solid-state drive

SSDsolid state drivesolid-state drives
The NAND type is found primarily in memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives (those produced in 2009 or later), and similar products, for general storage and transfer of data.
A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies to store data persistently, typically using flash memory, and functioning as secondary storage in the hierarchy of computer storage.

Memory card

memory cardsFlash memory cardmedia card
The NAND type is found primarily in memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives (those produced in 2009 or later), and similar products, for general storage and transfer of data.
A memory card or memory cartridge is an electronic data storage device used for storing digital information, typically using flash memory.

Computer memory

memorymemoriesmain memory
Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer memory storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.
Examples of non-volatile memory are flash memory (used as secondary memory) and ROM, PROM, EPROM and EEPROM memory (used for storing firmware such as BIOS).

Flash memory controller

flash controllercontrollerSSD controller
A flash memory device typically consists of one or more flash memory chips (each holding many flash memory cells) along with a separate flash memory controller chip.
A flash memory controller (or flash controller) manages data stored on flash memory and communicates with a computer or electronic device.

EEPROM

electrically erasable programmable read-only memoryE2PROMEEPROM memory
Flash memory is a type of floating-gate memory that was invented at Toshiba in 1980, based on EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) technology.
Flash memory is a type of EEPROM designed for high speed and high density, at the expense of large erase blocks (typically 512 bytes or larger) and limited number of write cycles (often 10,000).

Portable media player

media playerportable media playersdigital audio players
Example applications of flash memory include computers, PDAs, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, synthesizers, video games, scientific instrumentation, industrial robotics, and medical electronics.
The data is typically stored on a CD, DVD, BD, flash memory, microdrive, or hard drive.

Semiconductor memory

memory chipMOS memorydigital memory
A flash memory device typically consists of one or more flash memory chips (each holding many flash memory cells) along with a separate flash memory controller chip.
Non-volatile memory (such as EPROM, EEPROM and flash memory) uses floating-gate memory cells, which consist of a single floating-gate MOSFET per cell.

Digital camera

digital camerasdigitalcompact digital camera
Example applications of flash memory include computers, PDAs, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, synthesizers, video games, scientific instrumentation, industrial robotics, and medical electronics.
However, unlike film cameras, digital cameras can display images on a screen immediately after being recorded, and store and delete images from memory.

Read-only memory

ROMRead Only MemoryROMs
Flash memory is a type of floating-gate memory that was invented at Toshiba in 1980, based on EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) technology. This makes it a suitable replacement for older read-only memory (ROM) chips, which are used to store program code that rarely needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes.
Flash memory, invented by Fujio Masuoka at Toshiba in the early 1980s and commercialized in the late 1980s, is a form of EEPROM that makes very efficient use of chip area and can be erased and reprogrammed thousands of times without damage.

Memory cell (computing)

memory cellsmemory cellcell
The individual flash memory cells, consisting of floating-gate MOSFETs (floating-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors), exhibit internal characteristics similar to those of the corresponding gates.
Non-volatile memory technologies including EPROM, EEPROM and flash memory use floating-gate memory cells, which are based around floating-gate MOSFET transistors.

CompactFlash

Compact FlashCFCFast
NOR-based flash was the basis of early flash-based removable media; CompactFlash was originally based on it, though later cards moved to less expensive NAND flash.
CompactFlash (CF) is a flash memory mass storage device used mainly in portable electronic devices.

SmartMedia

Smart MediaSmartMedia Card
The first NAND-based removable memory card format was SmartMedia in 1995, and many others have followed, including:
SmartMedia is a flash memory card standard owned by Toshiba, with capacities ranging from 2 MB to 128 MB.

Memory Stick

Memory Stick PRO DuoMemory Stick MicroMemory Stick Duo
Memory Stick is a removable flash memory card format, originally launched by Sony in late 1998.

Fujio Masuoka

Fujio Masuoka, while working for Toshiba, proposed a new type of floating-gate memory that allowed entire sections of memory to be erased quickly and easily, by applying a voltage to a single wire connected to a group of cells.
He is best known as the inventor of flash memory, including the development of both the NOR flash and NAND flash types in the 1980s.

BIOS

ROM BIOSSystem BIOSBasic Input/Output System
This makes it a suitable replacement for older read-only memory (ROM) chips, which are used to store program code that rarely needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes.
In modern computer systems, the BIOS contents are stored on flash memory so it can be rewritten without removing the chip from the motherboard.

Firmware

BadUSBflashingflash
This makes it a suitable replacement for older read-only memory (ROM) chips, which are used to store program code that rarely needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes.
Firmware is held in non-volatile memory devices such as ROM, EPROM, or flash memory.

Samsung Electronics

SamsungSamsung Smart TVSamsung Semiconductor
Samsung Electronics introduced triple-level cell (TLC) technology storing 3-bit per cell, and began mass-producing NAND chips with TLC technology in 2010.
Samsung is a major manufacturer of electronic components such as lithium-ion batteries, semiconductors, chips and flash memory devices for clients such as Apple, Sony, HTC and Nokia.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
Example applications of flash memory include computers, PDAs, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, synthesizers, video games, scientific instrumentation, industrial robotics, and medical electronics.
They may or may not have integrated RAM and flash memory.

SanDisk

SanDisk CorporationEli HarariSanDisk LLC
In 2009, Toshiba and SanDisk introduced NAND flash chips with QLC technology storing 4-bit per cell and holding a capacity of 64Gb.
SanDisk (founded 1988) is a brand of Western Digital (WD) for flash memory products, including memory cards and readers, USB flash drives, and solid-state drives.

Charge trap flash

Charge trapCTF (charge trap flash)insulator "traps
Charge trap flash (CTF) technology was developed during the 1990s to early 2000s.
This was the first form of non-volatile memory based on the injection and storage of charges in a floating-gate MOSFET, which later became the basis for EPROM (erasable PROM), EEPROM (electrically erasable PROM) and flash memory technologies.

Dawon Kahng

The original MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor), also known as the MOS transistor, was invented by Egyptian engineer Mohamed M. Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.
Kahng and Sze proposed that FGMOS could be used as floating-gate memory cells for non-volatile memory (NVM) and reprogrammable read-only memory (ROM), which became the basis for EPROM (erasable programmable ROM), EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable ROM) and flash memory technologies.

Spansion

Saifun SemiconductorsSpansion Inc.
In 1998, Boaz Eitan of Saifun Semiconductors (later acquired by Spansion) patented a flash memory technology named NROM that took advantage of a charge trapping layer to replace the floating gate used in conventional flash memory designs.
Spansion Inc. was an American-based company that designed, developed, and manufactured flash memory, microcontrollers, mixed-signal and analog products, as well as system-on-chip (SoC) solutions.