Flat feet

pes planusflat footflat-footedfallen archesFlatfeetchronic flat foot conditionCongenital pes planusFallen Archflatflat footed
Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.wikipedia
137 Related Articles

Sole (foot)

solesolessole of the foot
Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground.
The arches might collapse later in life, resulting in flat feet.

Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament

calcaneonavicular ligamentplantar calcaneonavicularplantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament
As a result, the Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament) and the tendon of the tibialis posterior muscle are stretched, so much so that the individual with pes planus loses the function of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA).
When torn, it can result in a flatfoot deformity, and impair mobility.

Arches of the foot

archarch of the footarches
Flat feet (also called pes planus or fallen arches) is a postural deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. This is not a true collapsed arch, as the medial longitudinal arch is still present and the windlass mechanism still operates; this presentation is actually due to excessive pronation of the foot (rolling inwards), although the term 'flat foot' is still applicable as it is a somewhat generic term.
Collapse of the longitudinal arches results in what is known as flat feet.

Ligamentous laxity

ligament laxitylaxityloose ligaments
As a symptom itself, flat feet usually accompany genetic musculoskeletal conditions such as dyspraxia, ligamentous laxity or hypermobility.
Those who have loose ligaments in the legs and feet may appear to have flat feet.

Barefoot

bare feetbarefoot parkBarefoot hiking
Training of the feet, utilizing foot gymnastics and going barefoot on varying terrain, can facilitate the formation of arches during childhood, with a developed arch occurring for most by the age of four to six years.
Feet that have never worn shoes rarely exhibit problems such as bunions, corns, and "fallen arches", are not prone to more than ordinary foot eversion on standing and walking due to the associated weakness or stiffness of the joints of the foot and weakness of the muscles controlling them, as well as having a much reduced incidence of problems such as callouses.

Pronation of the foot

overpronationexcessive pronation of the footinward rolling of the foot
This is not a true collapsed arch, as the medial longitudinal arch is still present and the windlass mechanism still operates; this presentation is actually due to excessive pronation of the foot (rolling inwards), although the term 'flat foot' is still applicable as it is a somewhat generic term.
To complicate matters, one study done by Hylton Menz at the University of Western Sydney-Macarthur suggests that the methods for measuring arch height and determining whether someone is “flat-footed” or “high-arched” are unreliable.

Shin splints

medial tibial stress syndromeshin splinttibial stress syndrome
With standard running shoes, these professionals claim, a person who overpronates in his or her running form may be more susceptible to shin splints, back problems, and tendonitis in the knee.

Foot gymnastics

techniques
Training of the feet, utilizing foot gymnastics and going barefoot on varying terrain, can facilitate the formation of arches during childhood, with a developed arch occurring for most by the age of four to six years.
Such activities are recommended to improve flat feet especially of children and the gait performance of older adults.

Marfan syndrome

Marfan's syndromeMarfanMarfanoid
Besides affecting height and limb proportions, people with Marfan syndrome may have abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (scoliosis), thoracic lordosis, abnormal indentation (pectus excavatum) or protrusion (pectus carinatum) of the sternum, abnormal joint flexibility, a high-arched palate with crowded teeth and an overbite, flat feet, hammer toes, stooped shoulders, and unexplained stretch marks on the skin.

Talus bone

astragalustalusankle bone
In pes planus, the head of the talus bone is displaced medially and distal from the navicular bone.

Randomized controlled trial

randomized controlled trialsrandomized clinical trialrandomized control trial
However, a recent randomized controlled trial found no evidence for the efficacy of treatment of flat feet in children either from expensive prescribed orthotics (i.e., shoe inserts) or less expensive over-the-counter orthotics.

Orthotics

bracesorthosesbrace
However, a recent randomized controlled trial found no evidence for the efficacy of treatment of flat feet in children either from expensive prescribed orthotics (i.e., shoe inserts) or less expensive over-the-counter orthotics.

Child

childrenschoolchildrenkids
Studies have shown children and adolescents with flat feet are a common occurrence.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
The human arch develops in infancy and early childhood as part of normal muscle, tendon, ligament and bone growth.

Tendon

tendonssinewtendinous
The human arch develops in infancy and early childhood as part of normal muscle, tendon, ligament and bone growth.

Ligament

ligamentsknee ligamentcapsular ligaments
The human arch develops in infancy and early childhood as part of normal muscle, tendon, ligament and bone growth.

Bone

cortical bonebone tissuecancellous bone
The human arch develops in infancy and early childhood as part of normal muscle, tendon, ligament and bone growth.

Developmental coordination disorder

dyspraxiadelayed motor developmentMotor skills disorder
As a symptom itself, flat feet usually accompany genetic musculoskeletal conditions such as dyspraxia, ligamentous laxity or hypermobility.

Hypermobility (joints)

hypermobilitydouble jointeddouble-jointed
As a symptom itself, flat feet usually accompany genetic musculoskeletal conditions such as dyspraxia, ligamentous laxity or hypermobility.

Sandal

sandalsBarefoot sandalschaplis
One medical study in India with a large sample size of children who had grown up wearing shoes and others going barefoot found that the longitudinal arches of the bare-footers were generally strongest and highest as a group, and that flat feet were less common in children who had grown up wearing sandals or slippers than among those who had worn closed-toe shoes.

Slipper

slippersAlbert slipperbedroom slipper
One medical study in India with a large sample size of children who had grown up wearing shoes and others going barefoot found that the longitudinal arches of the bare-footers were generally strongest and highest as a group, and that flat feet were less common in children who had grown up wearing sandals or slippers than among those who had worn closed-toe shoes.

Shoe

shoessoleinsole
One medical study in India with a large sample size of children who had grown up wearing shoes and others going barefoot found that the longitudinal arches of the bare-footers were generally strongest and highest as a group, and that flat feet were less common in children who had grown up wearing sandals or slippers than among those who had worn closed-toe shoes.

Biomechanics

biomechanicalbiomechanistbiomechanic
Flat feet can also develop as an adult ("adult acquired flatfoot") due to injury, illness, unusual or prolonged stress to the foot, faulty biomechanics, or as part of the normal aging process.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Known risk factors include obesity, hypertension and diabetes.

Diabetes

diabetes mellitusdiabeticdiabetics
Known risk factors include obesity, hypertension and diabetes.