Flatulence

fartflatusflatulentfartinggasfartsintestinal gaspasses gasbreak windpass gas
Flatulence is defined in the medical literature as "flatus expelled through the anus" or the "quality or state of being flatulent", which is defined in turn as "marked by or affected with gases generated in the intestine or stomach; likely to cause digestive flatulence".wikipedia
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Fecal incontinence

incontinencebowel controlfaecal incontinence
It is a recognised subtype of faecal incontinence, and is usually related to minor disruptions of the continence mechanisms.
Fecal incontinence (FI), also known as anal incontinence, or in some forms encopresis, is a lack of control over defecation, leading to involuntary loss of bowel contents—including flatus (gas), liquid stool elements and mucus, or solid feces.

Abdominal distension

abdominal distentiondistensiondistended
These definitions highlight that many people consider "bloating", abdominal distension or increased volume of intestinal gas to be synonymous with the term flatulence (although this is technically inaccurate).
Through a variety of causes (see below), bloating is most commonly due to buildup of gas in the stomach, small intestine or colon.

Blowing a raspberry

raspberryBronx cheerblows a raspberry
The noises commonly associated with flatulence ("blowing a raspberry") are caused by the vibration of anal sphincters, and occasionally by the closed buttocks.
It is made by placing the tongue between the lips and blowing to produce a sound similar to flatulence.

Aerophagia

aerophagySwallowing airSwallowing of air
Excessive swallowing of environmental air is called aerophagia, and has been shown in a few case reports to be responsible for increased flatus volume.
Aerophagia may also refer to an unusual condition where the primary symptom is excessive flatus, belching is not present, and the actual mechanism by which air enters the gut is obscure.

Vaginal flatulence

queefsqueefqueefing
Derived terms include vaginal flatulence, otherwise known as a queef.
The sound is somewhat comparable to flatulence from the anus but does not involve waste gases and thus often does not have a specific odor associated.

Olfactory reference syndrome

Some patients may exhibit over-sensitivity to bad flatus smell, and in extreme forms, olfactory reference syndrome may be diagnosed.
The character of the odor may be reported as similar to bodily substances, e.g. feces, flatus, urine, sweat, vomitus, semen, vaginal secretions; or alternatively it may be an unnatural, non-human or chemical odor, e.g. ammonia, detergent, rotten onions, burnt rags, candles, garbage, burning fish, medicines, old cheese.

Lactose intolerance

lactose intolerantlactose-intolerantlactase deficiency
In the case of people who have lactose intolerance, intestinal bacteria feeding on lactose can give rise to excessive gas production when milk or lactose-containing substances have been consumed.
Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea.

Fart lighting

farting in the fire placeignitedigniting each other's flatulence
Methane and hydrogen are flammable, and so flatus containing adequate amounts of these can be ignited.
Fart lighting, also known as pyroflatulence or flatus ignition, is the practice of igniting the gases produced by human flatulence, often producing a flame of a blue hue, hence the act being known colloquially as a "blue angel", "blue dart", or in Australia, a "blue flame". The fact that flatus is flammable, and the actual combustion of it through this practice, gives rise to much humorous derivation.

Irritable bowel syndrome

IBSbowelirritable bowel
In the past, functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome that produced symptoms of bloating were attributed to increased production of intestinal gas.
The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence.

Feces

faecesdungexcrement
It is also normal for intestinal gas passed through the rectum to have a characteristic feculent smell, although this too may vary in concentration.
These are the same compounds that are responsible for the odor of flatulence.

Giardiasis

Giardialambliasisacute giardiasis.
Some infections, such as giardiasis, are also associated with flatulence.
This characteristic diarrhea is often accompanied by a number of other symptoms, including gas, abdominal cramps, and nausea or vomiting.

High-altitude flatus expulsion

excessive flatulationhigh altitude flatus expulsion
In the field of mountaineering, the phenomenon of high altitude flatus expulsion was first recorded over two hundred years ago.
High-altitude flatus expulsion (HAFE) is a gastrointestinal syndrome which involves the spontaneous passage of increased quantities of rectal gases at high altitudes.

Fermentation

fermentedfermentfermenting
Anything that causes food to be incompletely digested by the stomach or small intestine may cause flatulence when the material arrives in the large intestine, due to fermentation by yeast or prokaryotes normally or abnormally present in the gastrointestinal tract.
Electrons are transferred to ferredoxin, which in turn is oxidized by hydrogenase, producing H 2 . Hydrogen gas is a substrate for methanogens and sulfate reducers, which keep the concentration of hydrogen low and favor the production of such an energy-rich compound, but hydrogen gas at a fairly high concentration can nevertheless be formed, as in flatus.

Methanethiol

methyl mercaptanmethylmercaptanHSCH 3
Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan (also known as methanethiol), dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide are present in flatus.
It is one of the main compounds responsible for bad breath and the smell of flatus.

Inulin

F12 Inulin
Flatulence-producing foods are typically high in certain polysaccharides, especially oligosaccharides such as inulin.
Inulin-containing foods can be rather gassy, in particular for those unaccustomed to inulin, and these foods should be consumed in moderation at first.

FODMAP

Low-FODMAP dietdiet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyolslow-FODMAP diets
This is the theory behind diets such as the low FODMAP diet (low fermentable oligosaccharide, disacharide, monosaccharide and polyols).
The resultant production of gas potentially results in bloating and flatulence.

Methanogenesis

methanogenicbiomethanationbiogenic gas
In beans, endogenous gases seem to arise from complex oligosaccharides (carbohydrates) that are particularly resistant to digestion by mammals, but are readily digestible by gut flora – microorganisms (methane-producing archaea; Methanobrevibacter smithii) that inhabit the digestive tract.
Some humans produce flatus that contains methane.

Bean

beansdry beanBean (film)
Those foods include beans, lentils, dairy products, onions, garlic, spring onions, leeks, turnips, swedes, radishes, sweet potatoes, potatoes, cashews, Jerusalem artichokes, oats, wheat, and yeast in breads.
This digestion process produces flatulence-causing gases as a byproduct.

Asafoetida

asafetidahingheeng
Certain spices have been reported to counteract the production of intestinal gas, most notably the closely related cumin, coriander, caraway, fennel and others such as ajwain, turmeric, asafoetida (hing), epazote, and kombu kelp (a Japanese seaweed).
Asafoetida is considered a digestive in that it reduces flatulence.

Hydrogen

HH 2 hydrogen gas
These include oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane.
Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae and is a natural component of flatus, as is methane, itself a hydrogen source of increasing importance.

Bismuth subgallate

Smell from flatulence is commonly treated with bismuth subgallate, available over-the-counter in the US as Devrom.
Bismuth subgallate, with a chemical formula C 7 H 5 BiO 6, is commonly used to treat malodor by deodorizing flatulence and stools.

Lubiprostone

Other drugs including prokinetics, lubiprostone, antibiotics and probiotics are also used to treat bloating in patients with functional bowel disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, and there is some evidence that these measures may reduce symptoms.
Other adverse events (≥5% of patients) included diarrhea (13%), headache (13%), abdominal distention (5%), abdominal pain (5%), flatulence (6%), sinusitis (5%) vomiting (5%) and fecal incontinence (1%).

Rifaximin

The antibiotic rifaximin, often used to treat diarrhoea caused by the microorganism E. coli, may reduce both the production of intestinal gas and the frequency of flatus events.
Symptom relief or improvement can be obtained for global IBS symptoms including: abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating, and stool consistency.

Flatulist

professional farter
Enough entertainers performed with their flatus that the term flatulist was coined.
A flatulist, fartist, or professional farter is an entertainer (sometimes considered a comedian) whose routine consists solely or primarily of passing gas in a creative, musical, or amusing manner.

Cabbage

cabbageswhite cabbagegreen cabbage
Cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts and other cruciferous vegetables that belong to the genus Brassica are commonly reputed to not only increase flatulence, but to increase the pungency of the flatus.
Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest.