Flavoprotein

flavoproteinsflavoenzymeflavoprotein complexes
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).wikipedia
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Flavin adenine dinucleotide

FADFADH 2 FADH2
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Similar experiments with D-amino acid oxidase led to the identification of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a second form of flavin utilised by enzymes.
A flavoprotein is a protein that contains a flavin group, this may be in the form of FAD or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

Riboflavin

vitamin B 2 B 2 vitamin B2
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

B vitamins

vitamin BB vitaminB
By the early 1930s, this same pigment had been isolated from a range of sources, and recognised as a component of the vitamin B complex.

Adrenodoxin reductase

FDXR
The flavin is generally tightly bound (see example adrenodoxin reductase wherein the FAD is deeply buried in the enzyme).
Adrenodoxin reductase is a flavoprotein as it carries a FAD type coenzyme.

Cryptochrome

CRY1CRY2cryptochromes
Cryptochromes (from the Greek κρυπτός χρώμα, "hidden colour") are a class of flavoproteins that are sensitive to blue light.

D-amino acid oxidase

D -amino acid oxidaseD-amino-acid oxidaseDAO
Similar experiments with D-amino acid oxidase led to the identification of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a second form of flavin utilised by enzymes.
These are all typical properties associated with flavoproteins.

Phototropin

phototropins
Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins (more specifically, flavoproteins) that mediate phototropism responses in higher plants.

Nucleic acid

nucleic acidsNAmolecular basis
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

Flavin mononucleotide

FMNflavinsRiboflavin-5'-Phosphate
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN).

Radical (chemistry)

free radicalradicalfree radicals
Flavoproteins are involved in a wide array of biological processes, including removal of radicals contributing to oxidative stress, photosynthesis, and DNA repair.

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
Flavoproteins are involved in a wide array of biological processes, including removal of radicals contributing to oxidative stress, photosynthesis, and DNA repair.

DNA repair

DNA damagerepairtranslesion synthesis
Flavoproteins are involved in a wide array of biological processes, including removal of radicals contributing to oxidative stress, photosynthesis, and DNA repair.

Mitochondrion

mitochondriamitochondrialmitochondrial membrane
Flavoproteins are mainly located in the mitochondria.

Transferase

transferasesformyltransferasehydroxymethyltransferase
Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.

Lyase

lyases
Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.

Isomerase

isomerasesaldose-ketose isomerases
Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.

Ligase

synthetaseligasesligated
Of all flavoproteins, 90% perform redox reactions and the other 10% are transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.

Pigment

pigmentspigmentationnatural pigment
Flavoproteins were first mentioned in 1879, when they isolated as a bright-yellow pigment from cow's milk.

Cofactor (biochemistry)

cofactorcofactorscoenzyme
The first evidence for the requirement of flavin as an enzyme cofactor came in 1935.

Hugo Theorell

Axel Hugo Theodor TheorellTheorell, Axel Hugo Teodor
Hugo Theorell and coworkers showed that a bright-yellow-coloured yeast protein, identified previously as essential for cellular respiration, could be separated into apoprotein and a bright-yellow pigment.

Yeast

yeastsbrewer's yeastbudding yeast
Hugo Theorell and coworkers showed that a bright-yellow-coloured yeast protein, identified previously as essential for cellular respiration, could be separated into apoprotein and a bright-yellow pigment.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Flavoproteins are proteins that contain a nucleic acid derivative of riboflavin: the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Hugo Theorell and coworkers showed that a bright-yellow-coloured yeast protein, identified previously as essential for cellular respiration, could be separated into apoprotein and a bright-yellow pigment.

Cellular respiration

respirationaerobic respirationaerobic
Hugo Theorell and coworkers showed that a bright-yellow-coloured yeast protein, identified previously as essential for cellular respiration, could be separated into apoprotein and a bright-yellow pigment.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
The first evidence for the requirement of flavin as an enzyme cofactor came in 1935. Hugo Theorell and coworkers showed that a bright-yellow-coloured yeast protein, identified previously as essential for cellular respiration, could be separated into apoprotein and a bright-yellow pigment.

Redox

oxidationoxidizedreduction
Neither apoprotein nor pigment alone could catalyse the oxidation of NADH, but mixing of the two restored the enzyme activity.