Flight to Varennes

Varennesflee Parisattempted flight20 June 179121 juin 1791arrest of the king at Varennesattempt to escapeattempt to escape Parisattempted flight attempt of Louis XVIattempts to flee Paris
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.wikipedia
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Marie Antoinette

Marie-AntoinetteQueen Marie AntoinetteQueen Marie-Antoinette
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.
The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion.

Louis XVI of France

Louis XVIKing Louis XVIKing Louis XVI of France
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier. Louis XVI's indecisive response was one of the causes of the forcible transfer of the royal family from the Palace of Versailles to the Tuileries in Paris on 6 October 1789 after The Women's March on Versailles.
His disastrous flight to Varennes in June 1791, four months before the constitutional monarchy was declared, seemed to justify the rumors that the king tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign intervention.

François Claude Amour, marquis de Bouillé

Marquis de Bouilléthe marquis de BouilléBouillé
At Montmédy General François Claude de Bouillé, the marquis de Bouillé, had concentrated a force of 10,000 regulars of the old royal army who were considered to still be loyal to the monarchy.
A committed Royalist, he was a leading conspirator involved in the royal family's failed flight in 1791, whose failure forced de Bouillé into exile.

Execution of Louis XVI

executionexecutedexecution of King Louis XVI
The king's attempted flight provoked charges of treason that ultimately led to his execution in 1793.
In the neighbourhood of the present-day rue de Cléry, the Baron de Batz, a supporter of the Royal family who had financed the flight to Varennes, had summoned 300 Royalists to enable the King's escape.

Tuileries Palace

TuileriesPalais des TuileriesPalace of the Tuileries
Louis XVI's indecisive response was one of the causes of the forcible transfer of the royal family from the Palace of Versailles to the Tuileries in Paris on 6 October 1789 after The Women's March on Versailles.
The royal family tried to escape after dark, on 20 June 1791, but were captured at Varennes and brought back to the Tuileries.

Montmédy

MontmedyFort MontmédyFortresses of Montmédy
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.
During the French Revolution in 1791, the fortress was the anticipated destination of King Louis XVI and his family in their unsuccessful attempt to escape from the growing radical republicanism of Paris.

Sainte-Menehould

Sainte-MénehouldSte MenehouldPied de cochon
They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould. Finally, Jean-Baptiste Drouet, the postmaster of Sainte-Menehould, recognized the king from his portrait printed on an assignat in his possession.
The next year, Louis XVI passed through the town during the Flight to Varennes, where he was recognised, allegedly on account of the similarity between his face and the image on the coinage.

Jean-Baptiste Drouet (French revolutionary)

Jean-Baptiste DrouetDrouetCitizen Drouet
Finally, Jean-Baptiste Drouet, the postmaster of Sainte-Menehould, recognized the king from his portrait printed on an assignat in his possession.
Jean-Baptiste Drouet (January 8, 1763 – April 11, 1824) was a French politician of the 1789 Revolution, chiefly noted for the part he played in the arrest of King Louis XVI during the Flight to Varennes.

Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette

Marquis de LafayetteLafayetteGeneral Lafayette
On 28 February 1791, while the Marquis de Lafayette was handling a conflict in Vincennes, hundreds of royalists came to the Tuileries to demonstrate in support of the royal family, only to be expelled from the palace by National Guards.
A plot known as the Flight to Varennes almost enabled the king to escape from France on 20 June 1791.

Proclamation of the abolition of the monarchy

abolitionabolished the monarchyabolition of the monarchy
From this point forward, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility.
The Convention's députés were instructed to put an end to the crisis that had broken out since the prevented flight to Varennes of Louis XVI (June 1791) and the bloody capture of the Tuileries (10 August 1792).

Nancy affair

Nancy MutinyChâteau-Vieux RegimentNancy
De Bouillé himself had shown energy in suppressing a serious mutiny in Nancy in 1790.
De Bouillé, a committed royalist, was later to be a leading force in Louis XVI's attempted flight to Varennes.

Women's March on Versailles

The Women's March on VersaillesOctober DaysThe March on Versailles
Louis XVI's indecisive response was one of the causes of the forcible transfer of the royal family from the Palace of Versailles to the Tuileries in Paris on 6 October 1789 after The Women's March on Versailles.
Desperate, he made his abortive flight to Varennes in June 1791.

Louise-Élisabeth de Croÿ de Tourzel

Madame de TourzelMarquise de TourzelLouise-Elisabeth, Marquise de Tourzel
With the dauphin's governess, the Marquise de Tourzel, taking on the role of a Russian baroness, the queen and the king's sister Madame Élisabeth playing the roles of governess and nurse respectively, the king a valet, and the royal children her daughters, the royal family made their escape leaving the Tuileries Palace at about midnight.
She even accompanied the King and his family on a dangerous attempt to flee Paris for a royalist stronghold in Montmédy.

Élisabeth of France

Madame ÉlisabethPrincess Élisabeth of FranceMadame Elisabeth
With the dauphin's governess, the Marquise de Tourzel, taking on the role of a Russian baroness, the queen and the king's sister Madame Élisabeth playing the roles of governess and nurse respectively, the king a valet, and the royal children her daughters, the royal family made their escape leaving the Tuileries Palace at about midnight.
In June 1791, she accompanied the royal family on its unsuccessful escape attempt, which was stopped at Varennes, where they were forced to return to Paris.

Varennes-en-Argonne

VarennesChâteau de Varennes
They escaped only as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould.
It was the scene of the Flight to Varennes.

Champ de Mars massacre

Champs de Mars Massacremassacre on the Champ de MarsChamp de Mars
However, various factions in Paris like the Cordeliers and the Jacobins disagreed, and this led to a protest at the Champ de Mars; the protest turned violent, resulting in the Champ de Mars Massacre.
This decision came after Louis and his family had unsuccessfully tried to flee France in the Flight to Varennes the month before.

Day of Daggers

came to the Tuileries
On 28 February 1791, while the Marquis de Lafayette was handling a conflict in Vincennes, hundreds of royalists came to the Tuileries to demonstrate in support of the royal family, only to be expelled from the palace by National Guards.
It is thought that this incident helped to cement the King's decision to flee Paris on 20 June 1791, due to his dissatisfaction with his waning power, increase of restrictions placed upon him, and his disagreement with the National Assembly on the topic of the Catholic priests.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
From this point forward, the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic became an ever-increasing possibility.
Only after the Flight to Varennes removed most of the remaining sympathy for the king was a republic declared and Louis XVI sent to the guillotine.

Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier de Breteuil

Baron de BreteuilBreteuilBaron of Breteuil
The escape was largely planned by the queen's favourite, the Swedish Count Axel von Fersen and the Baron de Breteuil, who had garnered support from Swedish King Gustavus III.
After the failure of the flight to Varennes, Breteuil received instructions from Louis XVI, designed to restore amicable relations with the princes.

National Convention

ConventionFrench National ConventionFrench Convention
He appeared twice, on 11 and 23 December, before the National Convention.
The country was little more republican in feeling or practice than it had been before at any time since Varennes.

Antoine Barnave

BarnaveAntoine Pierre Joseph Marie BarnaveAntoine-Joseph Barnave
Prompted by Marie Antoinette, Louis rejected the advice of the moderate constitutionalists, led by Antoine Barnave, to fully implement the Constitution of 1791, which he had sworn to maintain.
At time of the arrest of Louis XVI and the royal family during the Flight to Varennes, Barnave was one of the three appointed to bring them back to Paris, together with Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve and the Charles César de Fay de La Tour-Maubourg.

Girondins

GirondistGirondinGirondists
At the same time, he encouraged the Girondin faction in the Legislative Assembly in their policy of war with Austria, in the expectation that a French military disaster would pave the way for the restoration of his royal authority.
Influenced by liberalism and the concept of liberal democracy, human rights and Montesquieu's separation of powers, the Girondins initially supported the constitutional monarchy, but after the Flight to Varennes in which Louis XVI tried to flee Paris in order to start a counter-revolution the Girondins became mostly republicans, with a royalist minority.

Timothy Tackett

His 1996 book about the members of the National Constituent Assembly of 1789 won the Leo Gershoy Award of the American Historical Association in 2001; he has also written about the Flight to Varennes and the emergence of the Terror amid the turbulence of the Revolution.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.

Paris

Paris, FranceParísParisian
The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers concentrated at Montmédy near the frontier.