Floating-point unit

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Part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating-point numbers.

- Floating-point unit
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AM9511-1 arithmetic coprocessor

Coprocessor

Computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor .

Computer processor used to supplement the functions of the primary processor .

AM9511-1 arithmetic coprocessor
i8087 and i80287 microarchitecture
i80387 microarchitecture
Intel 80386DX CPU with 80387DX math coprocessor

Some (such as FPUs) rely on direct control via coprocessor instructions, embedded in the CPU's instruction stream.

The exposed die of an Intel 486DX2

I486

Microprocessor.

Microprocessor.

The exposed die of an Intel 486DX2
The 486DX2 architecture
STMicroelectronics' ST ST486DX2-40
UMC Green CPU U5SX
Cyrix Cx486DRx²
The first 486 system from the UK on the cover of BYTE, September 1989

It offered a large on-chip cache and an integrated floating-point unit.

This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.

Execution unit

Execution unit is a part of the central processing unit (CPU) that performs the operations and calculations as instructed by the computer program.

Execution unit is a part of the central processing unit (CPU) that performs the operations and calculations as instructed by the computer program.

This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.

It may have its own internal control sequence unit (not to be confused with the CPU's main control unit), some registers, and other internal units such as an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), address generation unit (AGU), floating-point unit (FPU), load-store unit (LSU), branch execution unit (BEU) or some smaller and more specific components.

A symbolic representation of an ALU and its input and output signals, indicated by arrows pointing into or out of the ALU, respectively. Each arrow represents one or more signals. Control signals enter from the left and status signals exit on the right; data flows from top to bottom.

Arithmetic logic unit

Arithmetic logic unit is a combinational digital circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.

Arithmetic logic unit is a combinational digital circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers.

A symbolic representation of an ALU and its input and output signals, indicated by arrows pointing into or out of the ALU, respectively. Each arrow represents one or more signals. Control signals enter from the left and status signals exit on the right; data flows from top to bottom.
The combinational logic circuitry of the 74181 integrated circuit, which is a simple four-bit ALU

This is in contrast to a floating-point unit (FPU), which operates on floating point numbers.

Simple superscalar pipeline. By fetching and dispatching two instructions at a time, a maximum of two instructions per cycle can be completed. (IF = instruction fetch, ID = instruction decode, EX = execute, MEM = memory access, WB = register write-back, i = instruction number, t = clock cycle [i.e. time])

Superscalar processor

CPU that implements a form of parallelism called instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.

CPU that implements a form of parallelism called instruction-level parallelism within a single processor.

Simple superscalar pipeline. By fetching and dispatching two instructions at a time, a maximum of two instructions per cycle can be completed. (IF = instruction fetch, ID = instruction decode, EX = execute, MEM = memory access, WB = register write-back, i = instruction number, t = clock cycle [i.e. time])
Processor board of a CRAY T3e supercomputer with four superscalar Alpha 21164 processors

While early superscalar CPUs would have two ALUs and a single FPU, a later design such as the PowerPC 970 includes four ALUs, two FPUs, and two SIMD units.

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Streaming SIMD Extensions

Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series of Central processing units (CPUs) shortly after the appearance of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD's) 3DNow!.

Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series of Central processing units (CPUs) shortly after the appearance of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD's) 3DNow!.

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The first CPU to support SSE, the Pentium III, shared execution resources between SSE and the floating-point unit (FPU).

Computer simulation, one of the main cross-computing methodologies.

Fixed-point arithmetic

In computing, fixed-point refers to a method of representing fractional (non-integer) numbers by storing a fixed number of digits of their fractional part.

In computing, fixed-point refers to a method of representing fractional (non-integer) numbers by storing a fixed number of digits of their fractional part.

Computer simulation, one of the main cross-computing methodologies.

Since most modern processors have fast floating point unit (FPU), fixed-point representations are now used only in special situations, such as in low-cost embedded microprocessors and microcontrollers; in applications that demand high speed and/or low power consumption and/or small chip area, like image, video, and digital signal processing; or when their use is more natural for the problem.

Hipparchus, credited with compiling the first trigonometric table, has been described as "the father of trigonometry".

Trigonometry

Branch of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles.

Branch of mathematics that studies relationships between side lengths and angles of triangles.

Hipparchus, credited with compiling the first trigonometric table, has been described as "the father of trigonometry".
Fig. 1a – Sine and cosine of an angle θ defined using the unit circle.
Indication of clockwise and counterclockwise amounts of key rotations in degrees, in the unit circle.
Sextants are used to measure the angle of the sun or stars with respect to the horizon. Using trigonometry and a marine chronometer, the position of the ship can be determined from such measurements.
Function (in blue), which depicts amplitude vs frequency, reveals the 6 frequencies (at odd harmonics) and their amplitudes (1/odd number).
Triangle with sides a,b,c and respectively opposite angles A,B,C

The floating point unit hardware incorporated into the microprocessor chips used in most personal computers has built-in instructions for calculating trigonometric functions.

An early electromechanical programmable computer, the Z3, included floating-point arithmetic (replica on display at Deutsches Museum in Munich).

Floating-point arithmetic

Arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation to support a trade-off between range and precision.

Arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation to support a trade-off between range and precision.

An early electromechanical programmable computer, the Z3, included floating-point arithmetic (replica on display at Deutsches Museum in Munich).
Single-precision floating point numbers on a number line: the green lines mark representable values.
Augmented version above showing both signs of representable values
Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, who proposed a form of floating point in 1914
William Kahan. A primary architect of the Intel 80x87 floating-point coprocessor and IEEE 754 floating-point standard.

A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating-point numbers.

DOSBox emulates the command-line interface of DOS.

Emulator

Emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system to behave like another computer system (called the guest).

Emulator is hardware or software that enables one computer system to behave like another computer system (called the guest).

DOSBox emulates the command-line interface of DOS.
An emulation app for the 1983 programmable calculator HP-41CX running on Apple iOS. Additionally, the output of the historical thermal printer of this calculator line can be displayed.
Windows XP running an Acorn Archimedes emulator, which is in turn running a Sinclair ZX Spectrum emulator.
Tetris running on the Wzonka-Lad Game Boy emulator on AmigaOS, itself running on E-UAE on a modern Fedora Linux system.

Floating-point emulator: Some floating-point hardware only supports the simplest operations: addition, subtraction, and multiplication. In systems without any floating-point hardware, the CPU emulates it using a series of simpler fixed-point arithmetic operations that run on the integer arithmetic logic unit.