Flooding of the Nile

Nile floodannual floodingNile floodsfloodingfloodingsfloodsformer annual floodingits annual floodNile inundationannual flood
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.wikipedia
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Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture.

Egypt

EgyptianEGYArab Republic of Egypt
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times.
The ancient Egyptian name of the country was, which means black land, likely referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret, or "red land" of the desert.

Egyptians

EgyptianEgyptian peopleEgypt
It is celebrated by Egyptians as an annual holiday for two weeks starting August 15, known as Wafaa El-Nil.
The king in his role as Son of Ra was entrusted to maintain Ma'at, the principle of truth, justice and order, and to enhance the country's agricultural economy by ensuring regular Nile floods.

Isis

Cult of Isissun disk between two cows horns above her headan Egyptian goddess
Ancient Egyptians believed that the Nile flooded every year because of Isis's tears of sorrow for her dead husband, Osiris.
Sirius's heliacal rising, just before the start of the Nile flood, gave Sopdet a close connection with the flood and the resulting growth of plants.

Sirius

Sirius BSirius superclusterDog Star
This cycle was so consistent that the Egyptians timed its onset using the heliacal rising of Sirius, the key event used to set their calendar.
This rising occurs at Cairo on 19July (Julian), placing it just prior to the onset of the annual flooding of the Nile during antiquity.

Season of the Inundation

AkhetInundationFlood
The Egyptian year was divided into the three seasons of Akhet (Inundation), Peret (Growth), and Shemu (Harvest).
The name refers to the annual flooding of the Nile.

Ethiopian Highlands

highlandsEthiopian PlateauEthiopian montane forests
The flooding of the Nile is the result of the yearly monsoon between May and August causing enormous precipitations on the Ethiopian Highlands whose summits reach heights of up to 4550 m (14,928 ft).
These heavy rains cause the Nile to flood in the summer, a phenomenon that puzzled the ancient Greeks, as the summer is the driest season in the Mediterranean climate that they knew.

Season of the Emergence

PeretProyetGrowth
The Egyptian year was divided into the three seasons of Akhet (Inundation), Peret (Growth), and Shemu (Harvest).
The name refers to the emergence of the fertile land beside the Nile from its annual flood and to the growth of vegetation and crops over the following season.

Egyptian calendar

EgyptianEgyptian civil calendarancient Egyptian calendar
This cycle was so consistent that the Egyptians timed its onset using the heliacal rising of Sirius, the key event used to set their calendar.
With its interior effectively rainless for thousands of years, ancient Egypt was "a gift of the river" Nile, whose annual flooding organized the year into three broad seasons known to the Egyptians as:

Season of the Harvest

ShemuLow WaterHarvest
The Egyptian year was divided into the three seasons of Akhet (Inundation), Peret (Growth), and Shemu (Harvest).
The Season of the Harvest was known to the Egyptians themselves as "LowWater", variously transliterated as Shemu or Shomu, in reference to the state of the Nile before the beginning of its annual flood.

Blue Nile

Abay RiverAbayBlue Nile River
Most of this rainwater is taken by the Blue Nile and by the Atbarah River into the Nile, while a less important amount flows through the Sobat and the White Nile into the Nile.
The Blue Nile was a major source of the flooding of the Nile that contributed to the fertility of the Nile Valley and the consequent rise of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian mythology.

Nile

Nile RiverNile ValleyRiver Nile
The flooding of the Nile has been an important natural cycle in Egypt since ancient times. Ancient Egyptians believed that the Nile flooded every year because of Isis's tears of sorrow for her dead husband, Osiris.
When the Nile floods it leaves a rich silty deposit which fertilizes the soil.

Aswan Low Dam

Aswan DamOld Aswan Damfirst Aswan Dam
In order to further improve irrigation, Sir William Willcocks, in his role as director general of reservoirs for Egypt, planned and supervised the construction of the Aswan Low Dam, the first true storage reservoir, and the Assiut Barrage, both completed in 1902.
The earliest recorded attempt to build a dam near Aswan was in the 11th century, when the Arab polymath and engineer Ibn al-Haytham (known as Alhazen in the West) was summoned to Egypt by the Fatimid Caliph, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, to regulate the flooding of the Nile.

Aswan Dam

Aswan High DamHigh DamAswan
Eventually, Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt from 1956 to 1970, opted for the idea of the Aswan High Dam at Aswan in Egypt instead of having to deal with many foreign countries.
Before the High Dam was built, even with the old dam in place, the annual flooding of the Nile during late summer had continued to pass largely unimpeded down the valley from its East African drainage basin.

Nilometer

a deviceRaoudha nilometre in Cairothe nilometer
A nilometer was a structure for measuring the Nile River's clarity and water level during the annual flood season.

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

Coptic Orthodox ChurchCoptic OrthodoxCoptic Church
It is also celebrated in the Coptic Church by ceremonially throwing a martyr's relic into the river, hence the name, The Martyr's Finger (, Esba` al-shahīd).

Martyr

martyrdommartyredmartyrs
It is also celebrated in the Coptic Church by ceremonially throwing a martyr's relic into the river, hence the name, The Martyr's Finger (, Esba` al-shahīd).

Relic

relicsholy relicsholy relic
It is also celebrated in the Coptic Church by ceremonially throwing a martyr's relic into the river, hence the name, The Martyr's Finger (, Esba` al-shahīd).

Osiris

OsirianAserOsirian Mysteries
Ancient Egyptians believed that the Nile flooded every year because of Isis's tears of sorrow for her dead husband, Osiris.

Monsoon

southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoon
The flooding of the Nile is the result of the yearly monsoon between May and August causing enormous precipitations on the Ethiopian Highlands whose summits reach heights of up to 4550 m (14,928 ft).

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
The flooding of the Nile is the result of the yearly monsoon between May and August causing enormous precipitations on the Ethiopian Highlands whose summits reach heights of up to 4550 m (14,928 ft).

Atbarah River

Atbara RiverAtbaraAtbarah
Most of this rainwater is taken by the Blue Nile and by the Atbarah River into the Nile, while a less important amount flows through the Sobat and the White Nile into the Nile.

Sobat River

SobatAstapus
Most of this rainwater is taken by the Blue Nile and by the Atbarah River into the Nile, while a less important amount flows through the Sobat and the White Nile into the Nile.

White Nile

Victoria NileAlbert Nile Bahr al Jabal River
Most of this rainwater is taken by the Blue Nile and by the Atbarah River into the Nile, while a less important amount flows through the Sobat and the White Nile into the Nile.

Cataracts of the Nile

First CataractSecond Cataractcataracts
The first indications of the rise of the river could be seen at the first of the cataracts of the Nile (at Aswan) as early as the beginning of June, and a steady increase went on until the middle of July, when the increase of water became very great.