Floodplain

flood plainfloodplainsflood plainsflood-plainFadamaalluvial plainflood zoneriver bottomsalluvial valleybottomland
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.wikipedia
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River

riverineriparianleft bank
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
In larger rivers there is often also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
Surface soil can become saturated, which effectively stops infiltration, where the water table is shallow, such as a floodplain, or from intense rain from one or a series of storms.

Fluvial terrace

river terracealluvial terraceterrace
Geologically ancient floodplains are often represented in the landscape by fluvial terraces.
Fluvial terraces are elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and fluvial valleys all over the world.

Alluvial plain

alluvialalluvial plainsalluvial flats
It is probable that any section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar character.
A floodplain is part of the process, being the smaller area over which the rivers flood at a particular period of time, whereas the alluvial plain is the larger area representing the region over which the floodplains have shifted over geological time.

Meander

meandersoxbowincised meander
Floodplains are formed when a meander erodes sideways as it travels downstream.
If there is a flood plain, it extends beyond the meander belt.

Stream

creekstreamscreeks
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.

Tugay

tugaiEkhiin-GolTugay forests
Tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains, especially in Central Asia.
Tugay is a form of riparian forest or woodland associated with fluvial and floodplain areas in arid climates.

Missouri River

MissouriMissouri riversUpper Missouri
Sections of the Missouri River floodplain taken by the United States Geological Survey show a great variety of material of varying coarseness, the stream bed having been scoured at one place and filled at another by currents and floods of varying swiftness, so that sometimes the deposits are of coarse gravel, sometimes of fine sand or of fine silt.
Much of this sediment is derived from the river's floodplain, also called the meander belt; every time the river changed course, it would erode tons of soil and rocks from its banks.

Bank filtration

pre-filteredriverbank filtration
These are accumulations of sand, gravel, loam, silt, and/or clay, and are often important aquifers, the water drawn from them being pre-filtered compared to the water in the river.
Treated wastewater is typically discharged into a percolation pond on the alluvial flood plain rather than flowing directly into the river.

Flood insurance rate map

Flood Insurancemapped
The NFIP offers insurance to properties located within a flood prone area, as defined by the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), which depicts various flood risks for a community.
A flood insurance rate map (FIRM) is an official map of a community within the United States that displays the floodplains, more explicitly special hazard areas and risk premium zones, as delineated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

Inner Niger Delta

Inland Niger DeltaMassinaInner Niger Delta flooded savanna
In some tropical floodplain areas such as the Inner Niger Delta of Mali, annual flooding events are a natural part of the local ecology and rural economy, allowing for the raising of crops through recessional agriculture.
It is an area of fluvial wetlands, lakes and floodplains in the semi-arid Sahel area of central Mali, just south of the Sahara desert.

National Flood Insurance Program

Biggert–Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012NFIPCommunity Rating System
In the United States the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) manages the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) defines the floodplain as the area that would be flooded by a base flood, which is "the flood which has a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year".

Channel (geography)

channelchannelsshipping channel
Where a detailed study of a waterway has been done, the 100-year floodplain will also include the floodway, the critical portion of the floodplain which includes the stream channel and any adjacent areas that must be kept free of encroachments that might block flood flows or restrict storage of flood waters.
During floods, water flow may exceed the capacity of the channel and flood waters will spill out of the channel and across the valley bottom, floodplain or drainage area.

Riparian zone

riparianriparian zonesriparian habitat
They are a category of riparian zones or systems.

Recessional agriculture

recession agriculture
In some tropical floodplain areas such as the Inner Niger Delta of Mali, annual flooding events are a natural part of the local ecology and rural economy, allowing for the raising of crops through recessional agriculture.
Recessional agriculture is a form of agricultural cultivation that takes place on a floodplain.

Alluvium

alluvialalluvial soilalluvial deposits
When a river breaks its banks, it leaves behind layers of alluvium (silt).

United States Geological Survey

USGSU.S. Geological SurveyUSGS 7.5' topographic map
Sections of the Missouri River floodplain taken by the United States Geological Survey show a great variety of material of varying coarseness, the stream bed having been scoured at one place and filled at another by currents and floods of varying swiftness, so that sometimes the deposits are of coarse gravel, sometimes of fine sand or of fine silt.

Braided river

braidedbraided streambraided channel
The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water.

Oxbow lake

oxbowoxbow lakesox-bow lake
The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water.

Bayou

bayousslow-moving riverLouisiana Bayou
The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water.

Marsh

marshlandmarshesmarshlands
The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water.

Water stagnation

stagnant waterstanding waterstagnant
The floodplain during its formation is marked by meandering or anastomotic streams, oxbow lakes and bayous, marshes or stagnant pools, and is occasionally completely covered with water.

Central Asia

Central AsianCentralCentral Asian Republics
Tugay forests form an ecosystem associated with floodplains, especially in Central Asia.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalAgriculturist
This makes floodplains particularly valuable for agriculture.

Famine

faminesfood shortagesfood crisis
Excluding famines and epidemics, some of the worst natural disasters in history (measured by fatalities) have been river floods, particularly in the Yellow River in China – see list of deadliest floods.