Florin

florinsgold florinsgold florinfiorinofiorini d'oroFiorino d'orocoins issued in Florence, Italy, in 1252f.flfl.
The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time.wikipedia
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Florence

FlorentineFirenzeFlorence, Italy
The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary.

Republic of Florence

FlorenceFlorentineFlorentine Republic
The "fiorino d'oro" of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities since the seventh century to play a significant commercial role.
Their primarily mercantile orientation soon became evident in one of their earliest achievements: the introduction of a new coin, the florin, in 1252.

Fleur-de-lis

fleur-de-lysfleurs-de-lisfleur de lys
The design of the original Florentine florins was the distinctive fleur-de-lis badge of the city on one side and on the other a standing and facing figure of St. John the Baptist wearing a hair shirt.
As an emblem of the city, it is therefore found in icons of Zenobius, its first bishop, and associated with Florence's patron Saint John the Baptist in the Florentine fiorino.

Hungarian forint

forintHUFforints
The most important of these was the Hungarian forint, because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major source of European gold (until mining in the New World began to contribute to the supply in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the gold used in Europe came from Africa).
The forint's name comes from the city of Florence, where gold coins called fiorino d'oro were minted from 1252.

Dutch guilder

guildersguilderƒ
The word florin was borrowed in many other countries: for example, the Dutch guilder (abbreviated to Fl), as well as the coin first issued in 1344 by Edward III of England – then valued at six shillings, composed of 108 grains (6.99828 grams) of gold with a purity of 23 carats and 3 grains (or 23 7⁄8 carats) – and more recently relating to a British pre-decimal silver coin (later nickel silver) also known as a two shilling (or two bob) "bit" (abbreviation 2/-) worth 24 pence or one-tenth of a pound.
The symbol ƒ or fl. for the Dutch guilder was derived from another old currency, the florin.

Edward III of England

Edward IIIKing Edward IIIKing Edward III of England
The word florin was borrowed in many other countries: for example, the Dutch guilder (abbreviated to Fl), as well as the coin first issued in 1344 by Edward III of England – then valued at six shillings, composed of 108 grains (6.99828 grams) of gold with a purity of 23 carats and 3 grains (or 23 7⁄8 carats) – and more recently relating to a British pre-decimal silver coin (later nickel silver) also known as a two shilling (or two bob) "bit" (abbreviation 2/-) worth 24 pence or one-tenth of a pound.
Edward defaulted on Florentine loans of 1,365,000 florins, resulting in the ruin of the lenders.

Reserve currency

reserve currenciesforeign currency reservesanchor currency
Recent research indicates that the florin was once the dominant currency of Europe until accommodative policymaking led to the loss of its status as the continent's de facto reserve currency.
International currencies in the past have included the Greek drachma, coined in the fifth century B.C., the Roman denari, the Byzantine solidus and Arab dinar of the middle-ages, the Venetian ducato and the Florentine florin of the Renaissance, the seventeenth century Dutch guilder and the French franc.

History of coins in Italy

History of coins in Italy
Italy has been influential at a coinage point of view: the florin, one of the most used coinage types in European history, was struck in Florence in the 13th century.

Florin (English coin)

florinDouble Florin or Double LeopardDouble Leopard
The word florin was borrowed in many other countries: for example, the Dutch guilder (abbreviated to Fl), as well as the coin first issued in 1344 by Edward III of England – then valued at six shillings, composed of 108 grains (6.99828 grams) of gold with a purity of 23 carats and 3 grains (or 23 7⁄8 carats) – and more recently relating to a British pre-decimal silver coin (later nickel silver) also known as a two shilling (or two bob) "bit" (abbreviation 2/-) worth 24 pence or one-tenth of a pound.
The continental florin, based on a French coin and ultimately on coins issued in Florence, Italy, in 1252, was a standard coin (3.5 g fine gold) widely used internationally.

Coin

coinsspecieexergue
The Florentine florin was a coin struck from 1252 to 1533 with no significant change in its design or metal content standard during that time.

Troy weight

troy ouncetroy ouncestroy pound
It had 54 grains of nominally pure or 'fine' gold (3.5368 grams, 0.1125 troy ounce) with a purchasing power difficult to estimate (and variable) but ranging according to social grouping and perspective from approximately 140 to 1000 modern US dollars.

United States dollar

$US$USD
It had 54 grains of nominally pure or 'fine' gold (3.5368 grams, 0.1125 troy ounce) with a purchasing power difficult to estimate (and variable) but ranging according to social grouping and perspective from approximately 140 to 1000 modern US dollars.

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The "fiorino d'oro" of the Republic of Florence was the first European gold coin struck in sufficient quantities since the seventh century to play a significant commercial role.

Mark (unit)

marksmarkCologne marks
As many Florentine banks were international supercompanies with branches across Europe, the florin quickly became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large-scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark (a weight unit equal to eight troy ounces).

Unit of measurement

unitunits of measurementunits
As many Florentine banks were international supercompanies with branches across Europe, the florin quickly became the dominant trade coin of Western Europe for large-scale transactions, replacing silver bars in multiples of the mark (a weight unit equal to eight troy ounces).

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarians
The most important of these was the Hungarian forint, because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major source of European gold (until mining in the New World began to contribute to the supply in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the gold used in Europe came from Africa).

New World

NewThe New WorldAmericas
The most important of these was the Hungarian forint, because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major source of European gold (until mining in the New World began to contribute to the supply in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the gold used in Europe came from Africa).

Africa

AfricanAfrican continentAfrican countries
The most important of these was the Hungarian forint, because the Kingdom of Hungary was a major source of European gold (until mining in the New World began to contribute to the supply in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the gold used in Europe came from Africa).

John the Baptist

Saint John the BaptistSt. John the BaptistSt John the Baptist
The design of the original Florentine florins was the distinctive fleur-de-lis badge of the city on one side and on the other a standing and facing figure of St. John the Baptist wearing a hair shirt.

Cilice

hair shirthairshirthair-shirt
The design of the original Florentine florins was the distinctive fleur-de-lis badge of the city on one side and on the other a standing and facing figure of St. John the Baptist wearing a hair shirt.

Heraldry

heraldicheraldistarms
On other countries' florins, the inscriptions were changed (from "Florentia" around the fleur, and the name of the saint on the other), and local heraldic devices were substituted for the fleur-de-lis.

Ladislaus I of Hungary

Ladislaus ILadislausSaint Ladislaus
On the Hungarian forints, St. John was re-labelled St. Ladislaus, an early Christian king and patron saint of Hungary, and a battle axe substituted for the original's sceptre.

Lira

lireLerato Molapo
The weight of the original fiorino d'oro of Florence was chosen to equal the value of one lira (i.e. a nominal silver pound of 20 soldi or 240 denari) in the local money of account in 1252.

Coin of account

accountingmoney of account
The weight of the original fiorino d'oro of Florence was chosen to equal the value of one lira (i.e. a nominal silver pound of 20 soldi or 240 denari) in the local money of account in 1252.

Inflation

inflation rateprice inflationfood inflation
However, the gold content of the florin did not change while the money of account continued to inflate; by 1500, a florin was worth seven Florentine lire.