Flour

farinaceouswhite flourmealself-raising flourpotato flourbread flourwheat flourall-purpose flourflour millingflour-based
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.wikipedia
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Powder

powderspowderedpowdery
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Many manufactured goods come in powder form, such as flour, sugar, ground coffee, powdered milk, copy machine toner, gunpowder, cosmetic powders, and some pharmaceuticals.

Bread

breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for most cultures. Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, European, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

Pastry

pastriespastry doughcrust
Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, European, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.

Grain

grainsfood grainfood grains
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, and milled for flour or pressed for oil.

Rye

winter ryerye flourLargest rye producer
Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe.
It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley (genus Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, bread, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas.
When ground into flour, maize yields more flour with much less bran than wheat does.

Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
The FDA has been advised by several cookie dough manufacturers that they have implemented the use of heat-treated flour for their "ready-to-bake cookie dough" products to reduce the risk of E. coli bacterial contamination.
Dough is typically made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, and sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings.

Watermill

water millmillmills
Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill.
Such processes are needed in the production of many material goods, including flour, lumber, paper, textiles, and many metal products.

Gristmill

grist millCorn millflour mill
Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill. Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels.
A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.

Unifine mill

high speed rotor
More recently, the Unifine mill, an impact-type mill, was developed in the mid-20th century.
A Unifine mill is a single one-pass impact milling system which produces ultrafine-milled whole-grain wheat flour that requires no grain pre-treatment and no screening of the flour.

Benzoyl peroxide

dibenzoyl peroxideAcetoxylbenzoperoxide
Benzoyl peroxide bleaches, but does not act as a maturing agent. It has no effect on gluten.
Other uses include bleaching flour, hair bleaching, teeth whitening, and textile bleaching.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides.
Starch grains from the rhizomes of Typha (cattails, bullrushes) as flour have been identified from grinding stones in Europe dating back to 30,000 years ago.

Flour treatment agent

bread improverimproving agentmaturing agent
Some other chemicals used as flour treatment agents to modify color and baking properties include:
Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents, bread improvers, dough conditioners and dough improvers) are food additives combined with flour to improve baking functionality.

Graham flour

grahamgraham bread
An example is Graham flour, whose namesake, Sylvester Graham, was against using bleaching agents, which he considered unhealthy.
Graham flour is a type of coarse-ground whole wheat flour named after Sylvester Graham.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides.
It is abundant in cereals (wheat, maize, rice), potatoes, and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta.

Grist

grist for the mill
Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill.
Grist can be ground into meal or flour, depending on how coarsely it is ground.

Maida flour

maidamaida (all purpose flour)
Maida flour is a finely milled wheat flour used to make a wide variety of Indian breads such as paratha and naan. Maida is widely used not only in Indian cuisine but also in Central Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine. Though sometimes referred to as "all-purpose flour" by Indian chefs, it more closely resembles cake flour or even pure starch. In India, maida flour is used to make pastries and other bakery items such as bread, biscuits and toast.
Maida is a white flour from the Indian subcontinent.

Henry Jones (baker)

Henry Jones
This flour is generally used for preparing scones, biscuits, muffins, etc. It was invented by Henry Jones and patented in 1845.
Henry Jones (1812 – 12 July 1891) was a baker in Bristol, England, who was responsible in 1845 for inventing self-raising flour.

Wheat flour

cake flourwheatflour
Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, European, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries.
White flour or refined flour contains only the endosperm

Cereal germ

germwheat germwheatgerm
Cereal flour consists either of the endosperm, germ, and bran together (whole-grain flour) or of the endosperm alone (refined flour).
White bread is made using flour that has had the germ and bran removed.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
The earliest archaeological evidence for wheat seeds crushed between simple millstones to make flour dates to 6000 BC. The Romans were the first to grind seeds on cone mills.
Soft Red Winter – Soft, low-protein wheat used for cakes, pie crusts, biscuits, and muffins. Cake flour, pastry flour, and some self-rising flours with baking powder and salt added, for example, are made from soft red winter wheat. It is primarily traded on the Chicago Board of Trade.

Rye bread

ryeblack breadbread
Most rye breads use a mix of rye and wheat flours because rye does not produce sufficient gluten.
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.

Wheat middlings

middlings
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous.
Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) are the product of the wheat milling process that is not flour.

Gluten

glutinouswheat glutenglutin
A bleaching agent would affect only the carotenoids in the flour; a maturing agent affects gluten development.
In home or restaurant cooking, gluten is prepared from flour by kneading the flour under water, agglomerating the gluten into an elastic network known as a dough, and then washing out the starch.

Semolina

soojiravasuji
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous.
This is derived from the ancient Latin simila, meaning 'flour', itself a borrowing from Greek σεμίδαλις (semidalis), "groats".