Flour

farinaceouswhite flourmealself-raising flourpotato flourbread flourwheat flourall-purpose flourflour millingflour-based
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.wikipedia
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Powder

powderspowderedpowdery
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
Many manufactured goods come in powder form, such as flour, sugar, ground coffee, powdered milk, copy machine toner, gunpowder, cosmetic powders, and some pharmaceuticals.

Pastry

pastriespastry doughcrust
Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, European, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries.
Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.

Bread

breadsbreadmakingleavened bread
Wheat flour is one of the most important ingredients in Oceanic, European, South American, North American, Middle Eastern, North Indian and North African cultures, and is the defining ingredient in their styles of breads and pastries. Cereal flour is the main ingredient of bread, which is a staple food for most cultures.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

Rye

winter ryerye flourLargest rye producer
Rye flour is a constituent of bread in central Europe.
It is a member of the wheat tribe (Triticeae) and is closely related to barley (genus Hordeum) and wheat (Triticum). Rye grain is used for flour, bread, beer, crisp bread, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder.

Grain

grainsfood grainfood grains
Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.
This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture, since they can be mechanically harvested, transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos, and milled for flour or pressed for oil.

Dough

Unleavened doughYeast doughaiysh
The FDA has been advised by several cookie dough manufacturers that they have implemented the use of heat-treated flour for their "ready-to-bake cookie dough" products to reduce the risk of E. coli bacterial contamination.
Dough is typically made by mixing flour with a small amount of water and/or other liquid, and sometimes includes flour yeast or other leavening agents as well as other ingredients such as various fats or flavorings.

Watermill

water millmillmills
Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill.
Such processes are needed in the production of many material goods, including flour, lumber, paper, textiles, and many metal products.

Unifine mill

high speed rotor
More recently, the Unifine mill, an impact-type mill, was developed in the mid-20th century.
A Unifine mill is a single one-pass impact milling system which produces ultrafine-milled whole-grain wheat flour that requires no grain pre-treatment and no screening of the flour.

Gristmill

grist millCorn millflour mill
Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill. Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels.
A gristmill (also: grist mill, corn mill, flour mill, feed mill or feedmill) grinds cereal grain into flour and middlings.

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Corn flour has been important in Mesoamerican cuisine since ancient times and remains a staple in the Americas.
When ground into flour, maize yields more flour with much less bran than wheat does.

Benzoyl peroxide

dibenzoyl peroxideAcetoxylbenzoperoxide
Benzoyl peroxide bleaches, but does not act as a maturing agent. It has no effect on gluten.
Other uses include bleaching flour, hair bleaching, teeth whitening, and textile bleaching.

Graham flour

grahamgraham bread
An example is Graham flour, whose namesake, Sylvester Graham, was against using bleaching agents, which he considered unhealthy.
Graham flour is a type of coarse-ground whole wheat flour named after Sylvester Graham.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides.
Starch grains from the rhizomes of Typha (cattails, bullrushes) as flour have been identified from grinding stones in Europe dating back to 30,000 years ago.

Maida flour

maidamaida (all purpose flour)
Maida flour is a finely milled wheat flour used to make a wide variety of Indian breads such as paratha and naan. Maida is widely used not only in Indian cuisine but also in Central Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine. Though sometimes referred to as "all-purpose flour" by Indian chefs, it more closely resembles cake flour or even pure starch. In India, maida flour is used to make pastries and other bakery items such as bread, biscuits and toast.
Maida is a white flour from the Indian subcontinent.

Flour treatment agent

bread improverimproving agentmaturing agent
Some other chemicals used as flour treatment agents to modify color and baking properties include:
Flour treatment agents (also called improving agents, bread improvers, dough conditioners and dough improvers) are food additives combined with flour to improve baking functionality.

Rye bread

ryeblack breadbread
Most rye breads use a mix of rye and wheat flours because rye does not produce sufficient gluten.
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.

Henry Jones (baker)

Henry Jones
This flour is generally used for preparing scones, biscuits, muffins, etc. It was invented by Henry Jones and patented in 1845.
Henry Jones (1812 – 12 July 1891) was a baker in Bristol, England, who was responsible in 1845 for inventing self-raising flour.

Wheat middlings

middlings
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous.
Wheat middlings (also known as millfeed, wheat mill run, or wheat midds) are the product of the wheat milling process that is not flour.

Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides.
It is abundant in cereals (wheat, maize, rice), potatoes, and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta.

Pumpernickel

pumpernickel breadblack breadbread
Pumpernickel bread is usually made exclusively of rye, and contains a mixture of rye flour and rye meal.
It is often made today with a combination of rye flour and whole rye berries.

Semolina

soojiravasuji
Semolina is the coarse, purified wheat middlings of durum wheat used in making pasta, breakfast cereals, puddings, and couscous.
This is derived from the ancient Latin simila, meaning 'flour', itself a borrowing from Greek σεμίδαλις (semidalis), "groats".

Soba

buckwheat noodlesoba noodleshot soba
Buckwheat flour is used as an ingredient in many pancakes in the United States. In Japan, it is used to make a popular noodle called soba. In Russia, buckwheat flour is added to the batter for pancakes called blinis which are frequently eaten with caviar. Buckwheat flour is also used to make crêpes bretonnes in Brittany. On Hindu fasting days (Navaratri mainly, also Maha Shivaratri), people eat food made with buckwheat flour. The preparation varies across India. The most famous dishes are kuttu ki puri and kuttu pakora. In most northern and western states the usual term is kuttu ka atta.
It usually refers to thin noodles made from buckwheat flour, or a combination of buckwheat and wheat flours (Nagano soba).

Grist

grist for the mill
Roller mills soon replaced stone grist mills as the production of flour has historically driven technological development, as attempts to make gristmills more productive and less labor-intensive led to the watermill and windmill.
Grist can be ground into meal or flour, depending on how coarsely it is ground.

Pasta

pasta saucepastasDry Pasta
Chestnut flour is popular in Corsica, the Périgord, and Lunigiana for breads, cakes and pastas. It is the original ingredient for polenta, still used as such in Corsica and other Mediterranean locations. Chestnut bread keeps fresh for as long as two weeks. In other parts of Italy it is mainly used for desserts.
Also commonly used to refer to the variety of dishes made with it, pasta is typically made from an unleavened dough of a durum wheat flour mixed with water or eggs, and formed into sheets or various shapes, then cooked by boiling or baking.

Cornmeal

corn mealcorn flourmaize meal
For example, the word cornmeal often connotes a grittier texture whereas corn flour connotes fine powder, although there is no codified dividing line.
Cornmeal is a meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn).