Flowering plant

Angiospermsflowering plantsangiospermfloweringbroadleavedplantbroadleafplantsflowering treeAngiospermae
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c.wikipedia
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Flower

flowersfloralflowering
However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).

Fruit

fruitsseed podfruiting
However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. The function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

Seed

seedsseed coatkernel
However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds. The function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds.
. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants.

Endosperm

albuminousexalbuminouskernel
However, they are distinguished from gymnosperms by characteristics including flowers, endosperm within the seeds, and the production of fruits that contain the seeds.
The endosperm is a tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.

Gymnosperm

gymnospermsconifersGolosjemenjače
Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed-producing plants.
The non-encased condition of their seeds stands in contrast to the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary.

Pollination

pollinatedpollinatecross-pollination
In angiosperms, after the pollen grain has landed on the stigma, it develops a pollen tube which grows down the style until it reaches an ovary.

Sex organ

genitaliagenitalsgenital
The flowers of flowering plants produce pollen and egg cells, but the sex organs themselves are inside the gametophytes within the pollen and the ovule.

Fertilisation

fertilizationconceptionfertilized
The function of the flower is to ensure fertilization of the ovule and development of fruit containing seeds.
During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation.

Viola (plant)

violetViolaviolets
Occasionally, as in violets, a flower arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf.
is a genus of flowering plants in the violet family Violaceae.

Leaf

leavesaxilfoliage
The floral apparatus may arise terminally on a shoot or from the axil of a leaf (where the petiole attaches to the stem).
The broad, flat leaves with complex venation of flowering plants are known as megaphylls and the species that bear them, the majority, as broad-leaved or megaphyllous plants.

Magnolia

magnoliasmagnolia treemagnolia trees
The individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals (or tepals in flowers such as Magnolia where sepals and petals are not distinguishable from each other).
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae.

Self-incompatibility

self-incompatibleself-compatibleself-fertile
Homomorphic flowers may employ a biochemical (physiological) mechanism called self-incompatibility to discriminate between self and non-self pollen grains.
Self-incompatibility (SI) is a general name for several genetic mechanisms in angiosperms, which prevent self-fertilization and thus encourage outcross and allogamy.

Sepal

calyxsepalscalyces
The individual members of these surrounding structures are known as sepals and petals (or tepals in flowers such as Magnolia where sepals and petals are not distinguishable from each other).
A sepal ( or ) is a part of the flower of angiosperms (flowering plants).

Insect

insectsbugbugs
It functions to attract insect or bird pollinators.
The most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants.

Seedling

seedlingsplumuleLamha
The two classes of flowering plants (angiosperms) are distinguished by their numbers of seed leaves: monocotyledons (monocots) have one blade-shaped cotyledon, whereas dicotyledons (dicots) possess two round cotyledons.

Floral scent

scentodourrose-scented
Attraction is effected by color, scent, and nectar, which may be secreted in some part of the flower.
Floral scent is also referred to as aroma, fragrance, floral odour or perfume. Flower scent of most flowering plant species encompass a diversity of VOCs, sometimes up to several hundred different compounds.

Pollen

exinepollen grainmicrosporogenesis
Microspores, which will divide to become pollen grains, are the "male" cells and are borne in the stamens (or microsporophylls).
Pollen is produced in the microsporangia in the male cone of a conifer or other gymnosperm or in the anthers of an angiosperm flower.

Cronquist system

CronquistCronquist classification (1981)broad concept
The Takhtajan system and Cronquist system treat this group at the rank of division, leading to the name Magnoliophyta (from the family name Magnoliaceae).
The Cronquist system is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants.

Dahlgren system

DahlgrenRolf Dahlgren1982 classification
The Dahlgren system and Thorne system (1992) treat this group at the rank of class, leading to the name Magnoliopsida.
Dahlgren ranked the dicotyledons and monocotyledons as subclasses of the class of flowering plants (angiosperms) and further divided them into superorders.

Cotyledon

cotyledonscoleoptilefirst leaves
These names derive from the observation that the dicots most often have two cotyledons, or embryonic leaves, within each seed.
The number of cotyledons present is one characteristic used by botanists to classify the flowering plants (angiosperms).

Wettstein system

WettsteinBasidiolichenes
The Wettstein system and the Engler system use the name Angiospermae, at the assigned rank of subdivision.
*::2. subdivisio Angiospermae p. 467

Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)

Robert BrownR.Br.Brown
Its use with any approach to its modern scope became possible only after 1827, when Robert Brown established the existence of truly naked ovules in the Cycadeae and Coniferae, and applied to them the name Gymnosperms.
His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the observation of Brownian motion; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation, including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms; and some of the earliest studies in palynology.

Achene

achenesutricleutricles
This included flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, distinguished from his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with achenial or schizo-carpic fruits, the whole fruit or each of its pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked.
An achene (Greek ἀ, a, privative + χαίνειν, chainein, to gape; also sometimes called akene and occasionally achenium or achenocarp) is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants.

APG IV system

APG IV (2016)APG IVAPG IV classification system
Updates incorporating more recent research were published as the APG II system in 2003, the APG III system in 2009, and the APG IV system in 2016.
The APG IV system of flowering plant classification is the fourth version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy for flowering plants (angiosperms) being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG).

Xylem

protoxylemcohesion-tension theorytranspirational pull
The vascular bundles of the stem are arranged such that the xylem and phloem form concentric rings.
2) angiosperms (Angiospermae): there are some quarter of a million to four hundred thousand species of angiosperms. Within this group secondary xylem is rare in the monocots. Many non-monocot angiosperms become trees, and the secondary xylem of these is used and marketed as hardwood.