A report on Flunitrazepam

Rohypnol 1 mg tablets.
Hypnodorm 1 mg flunitrazepam tablets, Australia
Rohypnol
Icelandic Flunitrazepam

Benzodiazepine used to treat severe insomnia and assist with anesthesia.

- Flunitrazepam
Rohypnol 1 mg tablets.

14 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine

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Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

Intermediate-acting compounds have a median half-life of 12–40 hours. They may have some residual effects in the first half of the day if used as a hypnotic. Rebound insomnia, however, is more common upon discontinuation of intermediate-acting benzodiazepines than longer-acting benzodiazepines. Examples are alprazolam, estazolam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, lormetazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, and temazepam.

Date rape drug

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Any drug that incapacitates another person and renders that person vulnerable to sexual assault, including rape.

Any drug that incapacitates another person and renders that person vulnerable to sexual assault, including rape.

A 1999 study of 1,179 urine specimens from victims of suspected drug-facilitated sexual assaults in 49 American states found six (0.5%) positive for Rohypnol, 97 (8%) positive for other benzodiazepines, 48 (4.1%) positive for GHB, 451 (38%) positive for alcohol and 468 (40%) negative for any of the drugs searched for.

Hippocampus (brain)

Anterograde amnesia

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Loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

Loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

Hippocampus (brain)

This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of these are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

Roche

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Swiss multinational healthcare company that operates worldwide under two divisions: Pharmaceuticals and Diagnostics.

Swiss multinational healthcare company that operates worldwide under two divisions: Pharmaceuticals and Diagnostics.

Participation certificate of the F. Hoffmann-LaRoche & Co AG, issued 15 January 1932
Tamiflu box

In 1957, it introduced the class of tranquilizers known as benzodiazepines (with Valium and Rohypnol being the best known members).

Diazepam is sometimes used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

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Cluster of signs and symptoms that emerge when a person who has been taking benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence, undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

Cluster of signs and symptoms that emerge when a person who has been taking benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence, undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation.

Diazepam is sometimes used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide, 5 mg capsules, are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam, it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.

Benzodiazepines with a half-life of less than 24 hours include alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, flunitrazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam.

A box of Mogadon pills containing 5mg of Nitrazepam.

Nitrazepam

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Hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

Hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

A box of Mogadon pills containing 5mg of Nitrazepam.
Nitrazepam synthesis:

Nitrobenzodiazepines such as nitrazepam, nimetazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam are more toxic to the liver than other benzodiazepines as they are metabolically activated by CYP3A4 which can result in cytotoxicity.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

Controlled Substances Act

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Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

This provision was invoked in 1984 to place Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) in Schedule IV.

Zolpidem

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Medication primarily used for the short-term treatment of sleeping problems.

Medication primarily used for the short-term treatment of sleeping problems.

Generic zolpidem tartrate
Various zolpidem pills
Ambien tablets
frame

Zolpidem is available legally by prescription, and broadly prescribed unlike other date rape drugs: gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), which is used to treat a rare form of narcolepsy, or flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which is only prescribed as a second-line choice for insomnia.

Desmethylflunitrazepam

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Desmethylflunitrazepam (also known as norflunitrazepam, Ro05-4435 and fonazepam) is a benzodiazepine that is a metabolite of flunitrazepam and has been sold online as a designer drug.

Leo Sternbach

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Polish American chemist who is credited with first synthesizing benzodiazepines, the main class of tranquilizers.

Polish American chemist who is credited with first synthesizing benzodiazepines, the main class of tranquilizers.

Villa Adriatic where Leo Sternbach spent his childhood in Opatija, Croatia

He is credited with the discovery of chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), flurazepam (Dalmane), nitrazepam (Mogadon), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), clonazepam (Klonopin), and trimethaphan (Arfonad).