Flunitrazepam

Rohypnolroofieroofiesforget-me-nowrohipnolRohypnol Flunitrazepamroofied
Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.wikipedia
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Date rape drug

date rape drugsdate-rape drugstupefying
Flunitrazepam has been referred to as a date rape drug, though the percentage of reported rape cases in which it is involved is small.
Since the mid-1990s, the media and researchers have documented a new form of DFSA featuring date rape drugs such as rohypnol and ketamine.

Anterograde amnesia

anterogradeamnesia, anterogradeamnesia
This may appear as lack of concentration, confusion and anterograde amnesia.
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapines1,4-benzodiazepine
Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia. Flunitrazepam as with other benzodiazepines can lead to drug dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.
Intermediate-acting compounds have a median half-life of 12–40 hours. They may have some residual effects in the first half of the day if used as a hypnotic. Rebound insomnia, however, is more common upon discontinuation of intermediate-acting benzodiazepines than longer-acting benzodiazepines. Examples are alprazolam, estazolam, flunitrazepam, clonazepam, lormetazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, and temazepam.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

benzodiazepine withdrawalwithdrawal syndromebenzodiazepine
Flunitrazepam as with other benzodiazepines can lead to drug dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome. Abrupt withdrawal may lead to a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome characterised by seizures, psychosis, insomnia, and anxiety.
Benzodiazepines with a half-life of less than 24 hours include alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, flunitrazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, oxazepam, and temazepam.

Desmethylflunitrazepam

Other metabolites include desmethylflunitrazepam and 3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepam.
Desmethylflunitrazepam (also known as norflunitrazepam, Ro05-4435 and fonazepam) is a benzodiazepine that is a metabolite of flunitrazepam and has been sold online as a designer drug.

Nifoxipam

3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepam
Other metabolites include desmethylflunitrazepam and 3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepam.
Nifoxipam (3-hydroxydesmethylflunitrazepam, DP 370) is a benzodiazepine that is a minor metabolite of flunitrazepam and has been sold online as a designer drug.

Nimetazepam

Other nitro-benzodiazepines include nitrazepam (the parent compound), nimetazepam (methylamino derivative) and clonazepam (2ʹ-chlorinated derivative).
Patients being prescribed Erimin are being switched to Lavol and other hypnotics, e.g. estazolam, nitrazepam, flunitrazepam, etc.

Hoffmann-La Roche

RocheRoche PharmaceuticalsHoffman-La Roche
Flunitrazepam was discovered at Roche as part of the benzodiazepine work led by Leo Sternbach; the patent application was filed in 1962 and it was first marketed in 1974.
In 1957 it introduced the class of tranquilizers known as benzodiazepines (with Valium and Rohypnol being the best known members).

Convention on Psychotropic Substances

Schedule IVSchedule IUnited Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances
Flunitrazepam is a Schedule III drug under the international Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.
Schedule III includes barbiturate products with fast or average effects, which have been the object of serious abuse even though useful therapeutically, strongly sedative benzodiazepines like flunitrazepam and some analgesics like buprenorphine. The only ATS in this category is cathine.

Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons

Poisons StandardSchedule 8Schedule 9
In Australia, as of 2013 the drug was authorized for prescribing for severe cases of insomnia but was restricted as a Schedule 8 medicine.
All benzodiazepines except flunitrazepam and alprazolam

Nitrazepam

Mogadonserum
It is the fluorinated N-methyl derivative of nitrazepam.
Nitrobenzodiazepines such as nitrazepam, nimetazepam, flunitrazepam, and clonazepam are more toxic to the liver than other benzodiazepines as they are metabolically activated by CYP3A4 which can result in cytotoxicity.

Controlled Substances Act

Schedule ISchedule IIschedule III
In the United States, the drug has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is considered to be an illegal drug; as of 2016 it is Schedule IV. and provide for punishment for the importation and distribution of up to 20 years in prison and a fine; possession is punishable by three years and a fine.
This provision was invoked in 1984 to place Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) in Schedule IV. The drug did not then meet the Controlled Substances Act's criteria for scheduling; however, control was required by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.

Leo Sternbach

Leo H. Sternbach
Flunitrazepam was discovered at Roche as part of the benzodiazepine work led by Leo Sternbach; the patent application was filed in 1962 and it was first marketed in 1974.
He is credited with the discovery of chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), flurazepam (Dalmane), nitrazepam (Mogadon), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), clonazepam (Klonopin), and trimethaphan (Arfonad).

Zolpidem

AmbienZolpidem TartrateIntermezzo
Other benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines (anxiolytic or hypnotic) such as zolpidem and zopiclone (as well as cyclopyrrolones, imidazopyridines, and pyrazolopyrimidines) are also found in high numbers of suspected drugged drivers.
Zolpidem is available legally by prescription, and unlike gamma-hydroxybutyrate, which is used to treat a rare form of narcolepsy, and flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), which is only prescribed as a second-line choice for insomnia, zolpidem is broadly prescribed.

Prohibition of drugs

illegal drugdrug prohibitionprohibition
In the United States, the drug has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is considered to be an illegal drug; as of 2016 it is Schedule IV. and provide for punishment for the importation and distribution of up to 20 years in prison and a fine; possession is punishable by three years and a fine.
Among the benzodiazepines, temazepam (Restoril; Normison; Euhypnos), flunitrazepam (Rohypnol; Hypnor; Flunipam), and nimetazepam (Erimin)

Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom

controlled drugControlled DrugsSchedule 1
In the United Kingdom, flunitrazepam is not licensed for medical use and is a controlled drug under Schedule 3 and Class C
Included drugs are Benzodiazepines (Subclass CD Benz), other than temazepam, flunitrazepam or midazolam, and androgenic and anabolic steroids (Subclass CD Anab).

Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act

class A drugsClass AClass C drug
In the United Kingdom, flunitrazepam is not licensed for medical use and is a controlled drug under Schedule 3 and Class C

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.

Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is an intermediate acting benzodiazepine used in some countries to treat severe insomnia and in fewer, early in anesthesia.

Somnolence

drowsinesssleepinessdrowsy
Adverse effects of flunitrazepam include dependence, both physical and psychological; reduced sleep quality resulting in somnolence; and overdose, resulting in excessive sedation, impairment of balance and speech, respiratory depression or coma, and possibly death.

Drug overdose

overdoseoverdosingoverdosed
Adverse effects of flunitrazepam include dependence, both physical and psychological; reduced sleep quality resulting in somnolence; and overdose, resulting in excessive sedation, impairment of balance and speech, respiratory depression or coma, and possibly death.

Hypotonia

floppy infant syndromelow muscle tonepoor muscle tone
When used in pregnancy, it might cause hypotonia.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
Flunitrazepam as with other benzodiazepines can lead to drug dependence and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.

Epileptic seizure

seizureseizuresepileptic seizures
Abrupt withdrawal may lead to a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome characterised by seizures, psychosis, insomnia, and anxiety.

Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
Abrupt withdrawal may lead to a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome characterised by seizures, psychosis, insomnia, and anxiety.