Focal adhesion

focal adhesionsadhesion plaquesfocal-adhesionadhesion sitesfocal contacts or adhesion plaques
In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell–matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell.wikipedia
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Extracellular matrix

ECMmatrixextracellular matrices
In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell–matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell.
The molecular mechanisms behind durotaxis are thought to exist primarily in the focal adhesion, a large protein complex that acts as the primary site of contact between the cell and the ECM.

Vinculin

VCLMetavinculin
Within the cell, the intracellular domain of integrin binds to the cytoskeleton via adapter proteins such as talin, α-actinin, filamin, vinculin and tensin.
In mammalian cells, vinculin is a membrane-cytoskeletal protein in focal adhesion plaques that is involved in linkage of integrin adhesion molecules to the actin cytoskeleton.

PTK2

focal adhesion kinaseFAKfocal adhesion kinase (FAK)
Many other intracellular signalling proteins, such as focal adhesion kinase, bind to and associate with this integrin-adapter protein–cytoskeleton complex, and this forms the basis of a focal adhesion.
PTK2 is a focal adhesion-associated protein kinase involved in cellular adhesion (how cells stick to each other and their surroundings) and spreading processes (how cells move around).

Integrin

integrinsintegrin receptorintegrin alpha1
Focal adhesions serve as the mechanical linkages to the ECM, and as a biochemical signaling hub to concentrate and direct numerous signaling proteins at sites of integrin binding and clustering.
Moreover, talin proteins are able to dimerize and thus are thought to intervene in the clustering of integrin dimers which leads to the formation of a focal adhesion.

Paxillin

PXN
Initially, small (0.25μm²) focal adhesions called focal complexes (FXs) are formed at the leading edge of the cell in lamellipodia: they consist of integrin, and some of the adapter proteins, such as talin, paxillin and tensin.
Paxillin is expressed at focal adhesions of non-striated cells and at costameres of striated muscle cells, and it functions to adhere cells to the extracellular matrix.

Tensin

Within the cell, the intracellular domain of integrin binds to the cytoskeleton via adapter proteins such as talin, α-actinin, filamin, vinculin and tensin. Initially, small (0.25μm²) focal adhesions called focal complexes (FXs) are formed at the leading edge of the cell in lamellipodia: they consist of integrin, and some of the adapter proteins, such as talin, paxillin and tensin.
Tensin was first identified as a 220 kDa multi-domain protein localized to the specialized regions of plasma membrane called integrin-mediated focal adhesions (which are formed around a transmembrane core of an αβ integrin heterodimer).

Talin (protein)

talinTalin proteintalins
Within the cell, the intracellular domain of integrin binds to the cytoskeleton via adapter proteins such as talin, α-actinin, filamin, vinculin and tensin. Initially, small (0.25μm²) focal adhesions called focal complexes (FXs) are formed at the leading edge of the cell in lamellipodia: they consist of integrin, and some of the adapter proteins, such as talin, paxillin and tensin.
Discovered in 1983 by Keith Burridge and colleagues, talin is a ubiquitous cytosolic protein that is found in high concentrations in focal adhesions.

Zyxin

ZYXZYX (gene)
However, some focal complexes mature into larger and stable focal adhesions, and recruit many more proteins such as zyxin.
Focal adhesions are actin-rich structures that enable cells to adhere to the extracellular matrix and at which protein complexes involved in signal transduction assemble.

Testin

TESTES (protein)tumour suppressor function
TES is a 47 kDa protein composed of 421 amino acids found at focal adhesions and is thought to have a role in regulation of cell motility.

Durotaxis

durotactic
Their role in mechanosensing is important for durotaxis.
The site of cellular contact with the extracellular matrix is the focal adhesion, a large, dynamic protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton to the ECM fibers through several organized layers of interacting proteins.

Cell biology

cytologycell biologistcellular biology
In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell–matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell.

Macromolecular assembly

macromolecular assembliesBiological Unitmacromolecular structures
In cell biology, focal adhesions (also cell–matrix adhesions or FAs) are large macromolecular assemblies through which mechanical force and regulatory signals are transmitted between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and an interacting cell.

Protein complex

complexprotein complexescomplexes
Focal adhesions are large, dynamic protein complexes through which the cytoskeleton of a cell connects to the ECM.

Cytoskeleton

cytoskeletalcytoskeletal proteinscytoskeletal protein
Focal adhesions are large, dynamic protein complexes through which the cytoskeleton of a cell connects to the ECM.

Cell cycle

M phasecell cycle progressioncell-cycle
Focal adhesions are in a state of constant flux: proteins associate and disassociate with it continually as signals are transmitted to other parts of the cell, relating to anything from cell motility to cell cycle.

Sessility

sessile
In sessile cells, focal adhesions are quite stable under normal conditions, while in moving cells their stability is diminished: this is because in motile cells, focal adhesions are being constantly assembled and disassembled as the cell establishes new contacts at the leading edge, and breaks old contacts at the trailing edge of the cell.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
One example of their important role is in the immune system, in which white blood cells migrate along the connective endothelium following cellular signals to damaged biological tissue.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
One example of their important role is in the immune system, in which white blood cells migrate along the connective endothelium following cellular signals to damaged biological tissue.

Endothelium

endothelialendothelial cellsendothelial cell
One example of their important role is in the immune system, in which white blood cells migrate along the connective endothelium following cellular signals to damaged biological tissue.

Tissue (biology)

tissuetissuesbiological tissue
One example of their important role is in the immune system, in which white blood cells migrate along the connective endothelium following cellular signals to damaged biological tissue.

RGD motif

RGDRGD loopRGD sequence
Integrins bind to extra-cellular proteins via short amino acid sequences, such as the RGD motif (found in proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, or vitronectin), or the DGEA and GFOGER motifs found in collagen.

Fibronectin

FN1fibronectins
Integrins bind to extra-cellular proteins via short amino acid sequences, such as the RGD motif (found in proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, or vitronectin), or the DGEA and GFOGER motifs found in collagen.

Laminin

lamininsLaminin 5laminin-1
Integrins bind to extra-cellular proteins via short amino acid sequences, such as the RGD motif (found in proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, or vitronectin), or the DGEA and GFOGER motifs found in collagen.

Vitronectin

somatomedin BVTNreceptors, vitronectin
Integrins bind to extra-cellular proteins via short amino acid sequences, such as the RGD motif (found in proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, or vitronectin), or the DGEA and GFOGER motifs found in collagen.

Collagen

procollagencollagenscollagen fibers
Integrins bind to extra-cellular proteins via short amino acid sequences, such as the RGD motif (found in proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, or vitronectin), or the DGEA and GFOGER motifs found in collagen.