Foederati

foedusfederatesfoederatusfederatefœderatibarbarian warbandsfederated troopsfederatifoedafoederatii
Foederatus ( in English; pl. foederati ) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.wikipedia
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Visigoths

VisigothicVisigothGothic
Later, the sense of the term foederati and its usage and meaning was extended by the Roman practice of subsidizing entire barbarian tribes — which included the Franks, Vandals, Alans, Huns and, best known, the Visigoths — in exchange for providing warriors to fight in the Roman armies. Even before the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 several kingdoms with the status of foederati managed to gain a full independence formally recognized by the Western Roman Empire, such as the Vandals through the peace treaty concluded in 442 between their king Genseric and Valentinian III and the Visigoths through the peace treaty concluded in 475 between their king Euric and Julius Nepos.
The Visigoths first settled in southern Gaul as foederati to the Romans – a relationship established in 418.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Foederatus ( in English; pl. foederati ) was any one of several outlying nations to which ancient Rome provided benefits in exchange for military assistance.
In addition to Roman troops, the field armies included regiments of "barbarians" recruited from allied tribes and known as foederati.

Alaric I

AlaricAlaric I king of the VisigothsAlaric the Great
Alaric began his career leading a band of Gothic foederati.
Honorius then incited the Roman population to massacre tens of thousands of wives and children of foederati Goths serving in the Roman military.

Flavius Aetius

AetiusAëtiusEzio
In 423, the general Flavius Aetius entered the service of the usurper Joannes as cura palatii and was sent by Joannes to ask the Huns for assistance.
Notably, he mustered a large Roman and allied (foederati) army to stop the Huns in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, ending the devastating Hunnic invasion of Attila in 451.

Vandals

VandalVandalicVandal Kingdom
Later, the sense of the term foederati and its usage and meaning was extended by the Roman practice of subsidizing entire barbarian tribes — which included the Franks, Vandals, Alans, Huns and, best known, the Visigoths — in exchange for providing warriors to fight in the Roman armies. Even before the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 several kingdoms with the status of foederati managed to gain a full independence formally recognized by the Western Roman Empire, such as the Vandals through the peace treaty concluded in 442 between their king Genseric and Valentinian III and the Visigoths through the peace treaty concluded in 475 between their king Euric and Julius Nepos. The breach of the Rhine borders in the frozen winter of 406 and 407 made an end to the Roman presence at the Rhine when both the Romans and the allied Franks were overrun by a tribal migration en masse of Vandals and Alans.
There, the Hasdingi received land from the Romans, as foederati, in Asturia (Northwest) and the Silingi in Hispania Baetica (South), while the Alans got lands in Lusitania (West) and the region around Carthago Nova.

Battle of Adrianople

Adrianople*Adrianople (378)
These same Goths then rose in rebellion and defeated the Romans in the Battle of Adrianople in 378 AD. The critical ensuing loss of military manpower forced the Western Roman Empire to rely much more on foederati levies thereafter.
Hoping that they would become farmers and soldiers, the Eastern Roman emperor Valens allowed them to establish themselves in the Empire as allies (foederati).

Sarus the Goth

Sarus
At the Battle of Faesulae in 406 AD, Stilicho defeated the Gothic king Radagaisus and his combined Vandal and Goth army, only with the support of Gothic chieftain Sarus and Hunnic ruler Uldin.
Nothing is known of his life before he comes to notice in 406 commanding a force of Gothic troops, along with other barbarian foederati, against the invasion of Italy by Radagaisus of 405-6.

Goths

GothicgothDeewan Lal Chand
In 376 AD, some of the Goths asked Emperor Valens to allow them to settle on the southern bank of the Danube river, and were accepted into the empire as foederati.
The Goths separated into two main branches, the Visigoths, who became foederati (federates) of the Roman Empire, and the Ostrogoths, who joined the Huns.

Western Roman Empire

Western EmpireWesternWest
In 451 AD, Attila the Hun was defeated only with help of the foederati (who included the Visigoths, Alans and Saxons), and the foederati would deliver the fatal blow to the dying nominal Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, when their commander Odoacer deposed the usurper Western Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, and sent the imperial insignia back to Constantinople with the Senate's request that the 81-year-old West/East sub-division of the empire be abolished. Even before the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 several kingdoms with the status of foederati managed to gain a full independence formally recognized by the Western Roman Empire, such as the Vandals through the peace treaty concluded in 442 between their king Genseric and Valentinian III and the Visigoths through the peace treaty concluded in 475 between their king Euric and Julius Nepos.
In 476, after the Battle of Ravenna, the Roman Army in the West suffered defeat at the hands of Odoacer and his Germanic foederati.

Galla Placidia

PlacidiaAelia Galla PlacidiaEmpress Galla Placidia
Shortly afterwards, Aetius returned to Italy with a large force of Huns to find that power in the west was now in the hands of Valentinian III and his mother Galla Placidia.
In the disturbances that followed the fall of Stilicho, throughout the Italian Peninsula the wives and children of the foederati were slain.

Gaiseric

GeisericGeiserikGenseric
After Gunderic died early in 428, the Vandals elected his half-brother Genseric as his successor, and Genseric left Iberia to the Visigoths in favor of invading Roman Africa. Even before the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 several kingdoms with the status of foederati managed to gain a full independence formally recognized by the Western Roman Empire, such as the Vandals through the peace treaty concluded in 442 between their king Genseric and Valentinian III and the Visigoths through the peace treaty concluded in 475 between their king Euric and Julius Nepos.
In 435 Gaiseric concluded a treaty with the Romans under which the Vandals retained Mauretania and part of Numidia as foederati (allies under special treaty) of Rome.

Ostrogoths

OstrogothicOstrogothGothic
After the collapse of the Hunnic empire, the Ostrogoths entered into relations with the Eastern Roman Empire and were settled in Pannonia to become foederati of the Byzantines.
After their annexation by the Huns, little is heard of the Ostrogoths for about 80 years, after which they reappear in Pannonia on the middle Danube River as federates of the Romans.

Radagaisus

Radagaisus, King of the Goths
At the Battle of Faesulae in 406 AD, Stilicho defeated the Gothic king Radagaisus and his combined Vandal and Goth army, only with the support of Gothic chieftain Sarus and Hunnic ruler Uldin.
In addition, they received help from Gothic foederati under Sarus and Hunnic forces under Uldin.

Romulus Augustulus

Romulus AugustusRomulusAugustulus
In 451 AD, Attila the Hun was defeated only with help of the foederati (who included the Visigoths, Alans and Saxons), and the foederati would deliver the fatal blow to the dying nominal Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, when their commander Odoacer deposed the usurper Western Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, and sent the imperial insignia back to Constantinople with the Senate's request that the 81-year-old West/East sub-division of the empire be abolished.
After ten months in power, during which time his authority and legitimacy were disputed beyond Italy, Romulus was forced to abdicate by Odoacer, a Germanic foederatus officer who defeated and executed Orestes.

Odoacer

Kingdom of ItalyKingdom of OdoacerOdoacer's Kingdom
In 451 AD, Attila the Hun was defeated only with help of the foederati (who included the Visigoths, Alans and Saxons), and the foederati would deliver the fatal blow to the dying nominal Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, when their commander Odoacer deposed the usurper Western Emperor, Romulus Augustulus, and sent the imperial insignia back to Constantinople with the Senate's request that the 81-year-old West/East sub-division of the empire be abolished.
When Orestes was in 475 appointed Magister militum and patrician by the Western Roman Emperor Julius Nepos, he became head of the Germanic foederati of Italy (the Scirian—Herulic foederati). However, Orestes proved to be ambitious, and before the end of that year Orestes had driven Nepos from Italy.

Stilicho

Flavius StilichoStiliconeTicinum massacre
The father of one of the most powerful late Roman generals, Stilicho, was from the ranks of the foederati.
In the disturbances which followed the downfall and execution of Stilicho, the wives and children of barbarian foederati throughout Italy were slain by the local Romans.

Fall of the Western Roman Empire

decline of the Roman Empirefall of the Roman Empirefall of Rome
Even before the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 several kingdoms with the status of foederati managed to gain a full independence formally recognized by the Western Roman Empire, such as the Vandals through the peace treaty concluded in 442 between their king Genseric and Valentinian III and the Visigoths through the peace treaty concluded in 475 between their king Euric and Julius Nepos.
Theodosius was unable to recruit enough Roman troops, relying on barbarian warbands without Roman military discipline or loyalty.

Julius Nepos

Nepos
Even before the eventual collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476 several kingdoms with the status of foederati managed to gain a full independence formally recognized by the Western Roman Empire, such as the Vandals through the peace treaty concluded in 442 between their king Genseric and Valentinian III and the Visigoths through the peace treaty concluded in 475 between their king Euric and Julius Nepos.
Romulus' short reign ended on September 4, 476, when Odoacer, head of the Germanic Foederati in Italy, captured Ravenna, killed Orestes, and deposed Romulus.

Byzantine army

ByzantinearmyEastern Roman army
Foederati (Gr: Φοιδερᾶτοι or translated as Σύμμαχοι) were still present in the Eastern Roman army during the 6th century.
4) The foederati. They were a relatively new element in the army, recruited from the fifth century onwards from barbarian volunteers. They were formed into cavalry units under Roman officers. A ban on enlistments by Roman subjects was lifted in the sixth century, and their composition became mixed.

Theoderic the Great

TheodoricTheodericTheodoric the Great
During the latter half of the 5th century, the Ostrogoths relationship with the Byzantines started to shift from friendship to enmity, just as the Visigoths had done before them, and their king Theoderic the Great led them to frequently ravage the provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire, eventually threatening Constantinople itself.
At the time, the Ostrogoths were settled in Byzantine territory as foederati (allies) of the Romans, but were becoming restless and increasingly difficult for Zeno to manage.

Battle of Mainz (406)

Battle of MainzBattle of Moguntiacumwere overrun
The breach of the Rhine borders in the frozen winter of 406 and 407 made an end to the Roman presence at the Rhine when both the Romans and the allied Franks were overrun by a tribal migration en masse of Vandals and Alans.

Banu Amela

AmelaAmilaAmilah
Among these foederati were the Tanukhids, Banu Judham, Banu Amela and the Ghassanids.
From their then settlement in southern Palestine (which they still occupied even during the Muslim conquest of the Levant), for centuries Banu Amela acted as foederati for the Byzantines against any possible threats from the tribes of the Arabian peninsular and the Persian-allied Lakhmids.

Pannonia

PannonianRoman timesPannonians
After the collapse of the Hunnic empire, the Ostrogoths entered into relations with the Eastern Roman Empire and were settled in Pannonia to become foederati of the Byzantines.
After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Marcian in the province as foederati.

Lombards

LombardLombardicLangobards
At the Battle of Taginae, a large contingent of the Byzantine army was made up of Lombards, Gepids and Bulgars.
In 552, the Byzantines, aided by a large contingent of Foederati, notably Lombards, Heruls and Bulgars, defeated the last Ostrogoths led by Teia in the Battle of Taginae.

Tanukhids

TanukhTanukhidal-Tanukhi
Among these foederati were the Tanukhids, Banu Judham, Banu Amela and the Ghassanids.
The Tanukhids played a key role in the defeat of Zenobia's forces by Emperor Aurelian and served as foederati in the Roman East - the first Arab tribe to do so. In 378, their Queen Mavia led them in a revolt against Emperor Valens.