Folate

folic acidfolate biosynthesisone carbon pool by folateVitamin B 9 folate synthesisfolacinFolic acid supplementationvitamin B9B9folate pathway
Folate, also known as vitamin B 9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins.wikipedia
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Folate deficiency

folic acid deficiencyfolatedepletion
Folate in the form of folic acid is used to treat anemia caused by folate deficiency.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folate and derivatives in the body.

Pregnancy

pregnantfirst trimesterpregnant women
Folic acid is also used as a supplement by women during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the baby.
Prenatal care may include taking extra folic acid, avoiding drugs and alcohol, regular exercise, blood tests, and regular physical examinations.

B vitamins

vitamin BB vitaminB
Folate, also known as vitamin B 9 and folacin, is one of the B vitamins.

Pterin

pterins2-amino-4-hydroxypteridinebiopterin
A pterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-pteridine) heterocyclic ring is linked by a methylene bridge to a p-aminobenzoyl group that in turn is bonded through an amide linkage to either glutamic acid or poly-glutamate.
One important family of pterin derivatives are Folates.

Coeliac disease

celiac diseaseceliac spruecoeliac
Folate deficiency can be caused by unhealthy diets that do not include enough vegetables and other folate-rich foods; diseases in which folates are not well absorbed in the digestive system (such as Crohn's disease or celiac disease); some genetic disorders that affect levels of folate; and certain medicines (such as phenytoin, sulfasalazine, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseasecongenital heart defectsheart defect
A meta-analysis of folate supplementation during pregnancy reported a 28% lower relative risk of newborn congenital heart defects.
Congenital heart defects are partly preventable through rubella vaccination, the adding of iodine to salt, and the adding of folic acid to certain food products.

Levomefolic acid

5-methyltetrahydrofolatemethyltetrahydrofolate5-MTHF
"Folate" refers to the many forms of folic acid and its related compounds, including tetrahydrofolic acid (the active form), methyltetrahydrofolate (the primary form found in blood), methenyltetrahydrofolate, folinic acid, and folacin.
Levomefolic acid (INN) (also known as L-5-MTHF, L -methylfolate and L -5-methyltetrahydrofolate and (6S)-5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and (6S)-5-MTHF) is the primary biologically active form of folate used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homocysteine.

Methotrexate

amethopterin(M)'''ethotrexateAbitrexate
The antifolate drug methotrexate is often used to treat cancer because it inhibits the production of the active form of THF from the inactive dihydrofolate (DHF). Among them are the antifolate such as the antimicrobial, trimethoprim, the antiprotozoal, pyrimethamine and the chemotherapy drug methotrexate, and the sulfonamides (competitive inhibitors of 4-aminobenzoic acid in the reactions of dihydropteroate synthetase).
It acts by blocking the body's use of folic acid.

Crohn's disease

Crohn’s diseaseCrohn diseaseCrohn
Folate deficiency can be caused by unhealthy diets that do not include enough vegetables and other folate-rich foods; diseases in which folates are not well absorbed in the digestive system (such as Crohn's disease or celiac disease); some genetic disorders that affect levels of folate; and certain medicines (such as phenytoin, sulfasalazine, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).
People with Crohn's disease may develop anemia due to vitamin B 12, folate, iron deficiency, or due to anemia of chronic disease.

Megaloblastic anemia

megaloblastic anaemiamegaloblastic anaemiasa type of anemia
This may result in a type of anemia in which red blood cells become abnormally large.

Tetrahydrofolic acid

tetrahydrofolate5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolatetetrahydrofolates
The biological activity of folate in the body depends upon dihydrofolate reductase action in the liver which converts folate into tetrahydrofolate (THF).
Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.

Food fortification

fortifiedfortificationNutrification
Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage.
Folate (as a fortification ingredient, folic acid) functions in reducing blood homocysteine levels, forming red blood cells, proper growth and division of cells and preventing neural tube defects (NTDs).

Glutamic acid

glutamateL-glutamateGlu
A pterin (2-amino-4-hydroxy-pteridine) heterocyclic ring is linked by a methylene bridge to a p-aminobenzoyl group that in turn is bonded through an amide linkage to either glutamic acid or poly-glutamate.

Vitamin B12

vitamin B 12 cobalaminB12
A complex interaction occurs between folic acid, vitamin B 12, and iron.
Folate levels in the individual may affect the course of pathological changes and symptomatology.

Anemia

anaemiaanemicanaemic
Folate in the form of folic acid is used to treat anemia caused by folate deficiency.
When the cause is not obvious, clinicians use other tests, such as: ESR, ferritin, serum iron, transferrin, RBC folate level, serum vitamin B 12, hemoglobin electrophoresis, renal function tests (e.g. serum creatinine) although the tests will depend on the clinical hypothesis that is being investigated.

Dietary supplement

dietary supplementsnutritional supplementnutritional supplements
Manufactured folic acid, which is converted into folate by the body, is used as a dietary supplement and in food fortification as it is more stable during processing and storage.
Work done by scientists in the early 20th century on identifying individual nutrients in food and developing ways to manufacture them raised hopes that optimal health could be achieved and diseases prevented by adding them to food and providing people with dietary supplements; while there were successes in preventing vitamin deficiencies, and preventing conditions like neural tube defects by supplementation and food fortification with folic acid, no targeted supplementation or fortification strategies to prevent major diseases like cancer or cardiovascular diseases have proved successful.

Folinic acid

leucovorinCalcium folinateCalcium levofolinate
Folinic acid, under the drug name leucovorin, a form of folate (formyl-THF), can help "rescue" or reverse the toxic effects of methotrexate.
Folinic acid is a form of folic acid that does not require activation by dihydrofolate reductase to be useful to the body.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.

Dihydrofolic acid

dihydrofolate
Folic acid is first reduced to dihydrofolate and then to tetrahydrofolate.
Dihydrofolic acid (conjugate base dihydrofolate) (DHF) is a folic acid (vitamin B 9 ) derivative which is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid by dihydrofolate reductase.

Neural tube defect

neural tube defectsspinal dysraphismdefects
Folic acid is also used as a supplement by women during pregnancy to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the baby.
Inadequate levels of folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 during pregnancy have been found to lead to increased risk of NTDs.

Nutrient

nutrientsessential nutrientmacronutrient
Folate is essential for the body to make DNA and RNA and metabolise amino acids, which are required for cell division.
Humans require thirteen vitamins in their diet, most of which are actually groups of related molecules (e.g. vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols): vitamins A, C, D, E, K, thiamine (B 1 ), riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin (B 3 ), pantothenic acid (B 5 ), vitamin B 6 (e.g., pyridoxine), biotin (B 7 ), folate (B 9 ), and cobalamin (B 12 ).

Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
Long-term supplementation with relatively large amounts of folic acid is associated with small reduction in the risk of stroke and an increased risk of prostate cancer.
It does not appear that lowering levels of homocysteine with folic acid affects the risk of stroke.

Antifolate

Antifolatesfolate antimetabolitefolic acid antagonist
Among them are the antifolate such as the antimicrobial, trimethoprim, the antiprotozoal, pyrimethamine and the chemotherapy drug methotrexate, and the sulfonamides (competitive inhibitors of 4-aminobenzoic acid in the reactions of dihydropteroate synthetase).
Antifolates are a class of antimetabolite medications that antagonise (that is, block) the actions of folic acid (vitamin B 9 ).

Shikimate pathway

shikimic acid pathwaypathwayShikimate acid pathway
Pterin is in turn derived in a series of enzymatically catalyzed steps from guanosine triphosphate (GTP), while para-aminobenzoic acid (vitamin B10) is a product of the shikimate pathway.
The shikimate pathway (shikimic acid pathway) is a seven-step Metabolic pathway used by bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, some protozoans, and plants for the biosynthesis of folates and aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan).

Vitamin B12 deficiency

vitamin B 12 deficiencyVitamin B 12 B 12
There are concerns that large amounts of supplemental folic acid can hide vitamin B 12 deficiency.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has found that "Large amounts of folic acid can mask the damaging effects of vitamin B 12 deficiency by correcting the megaloblastic anemia caused by vitamin B 12 deficiency without correcting the neurological damage that also occurs", there are also indications that "high serum folate levels might not only mask vitamin B 12 deficiency, but could also exacerbate the anemia and worsen the cognitive symptoms associated with vitamin B 12 deficiency".