Font

fontsoptical sizeoptical sizesstylistic alternatesalternate charactersstylistic alternatecondensedfont weightweightscondensed font
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.wikipedia
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Typeface

fonttypefacesfonts
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface. In a manual printing (letterpress) house the word "font" would refer to a complete set of metal type that would be used to typeset an entire page. Most typefaces either have proportional or monospaced (i.e. typewriter-style) letter widths, if the script provides the possibility.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.

Italic type

italicitalicsitalicized
Each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface "Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer roman", "Bulmer italic", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylised form of calligraphic handwriting.

Typesetting

typesettercompositortypeset
In a manual printing (letterpress) house the word "font" would refer to a complete set of metal type that would be used to typeset an entire page.
Typesetting requires one or more fonts (which are widely but erroneously confused with and substituted for typefaces).

Dash

en dashem dash
Some metal type characters required in typesetting, such as dashes, spaces and line-height spacers, were not part of a specific font, but were generic pieces which could be used with any font.
The figure dash is so named because it is the same width as a digit, at least in fonts with digits of equal width.

Emphasis (typography)

boldboldfaceemphasis
Each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface "Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer roman", "Bulmer italic", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface.
In typography, emphasis is the strengthening of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text, to highlight them.

TrueType

TrueType fontTrueType fontsTTF
The TrueType font format introduced a scale from 100 through 900, which is also used in CSS and OpenType, where 400 is regular (roman or plain).
The primary strength of TrueType was originally that it offered font developers a high degree of control over precisely how their fonts are displayed, right down to particular pixels, at various font sizes.

Thesis (typeface)

ThesisTheSansTheSerif
This means that many modern digital fonts such as Myriad and TheSans are offered in a large range of weights which offer a smooth and continuous transition from one weight to the next, although some digital fonts are created with extensive manual corrections.
The fonts also include a large number of stylistic alternate characters.

Cursive

longhandcursive writingcursive script
Italic styles are more flowing than the normal typeface, approaching a more handwritten, cursive style, possibly using ligatures more commonly or gaining swashes.
The individuality of the provenance of a document (see Signature) was a factor also, as opposed to machine font.

Glyph

glyphscharactercharacters
Each font was a matched set of type, one piece (called a "sort") for each glyph, and a typeface consisting of a range of fonts that shared an overall design.
In typography and computing, the range of graphemes is broader than in a written language in other ways too: a typographical font often has to cope with a range of different languages each of which contribute their own graphemes, and it may also be required to print other symbols such as dingbats.

Letterpress printing

letterpressletterpress printerletterpress printers
In a manual printing (letterpress) house the word "font" would refer to a complete set of metal type that would be used to typeset an entire page.

Monospaced font

monospacedmonospacemonospace font
Most typefaces either have proportional or monospaced (i.e. typewriter-style) letter widths, if the script provides the possibility.
A monospaced font, also called a fixed-pitch, fixed-width, or non-proportional font, is a font whose letters and characters each occupy the same amount of horizontal space.

Letter case

minusculemajusculelowercase
For example, the Cyrillic minuscule "т" may look like a smaller form of its majuscule "Т" or more like a roman small "m" as in its standard italic appearance; in this case the distinction between styles is also a matter of local preference.
Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the typeface and font used):

Gill Sans

Gill KayoGill Sans MTGill Sans Nova
As a result, many older multi-weight families such as Gill Sans and Monotype Grotesque have considerable differences in styles from light to extra-bold.
Monotype developed a set of alternate characters for Gill Sans to cater for differing tastes and national printing styles of different countries.

Bulmer (typeface)

BulmerBulmer Romannew typeface
Each style is in a separate "font file"—for instance, the typeface "Bulmer" may include the fonts "Bulmer roman", "Bulmer italic", "Bulmer bold" and "Bulmer extended"—but the term "font" might be applied either to one of these alone or to the whole typeface.
It features text and display optical sizes and oldstyle and lining figures.

OpenType

OpenType mathOTFOpen Font Format
The TrueType font format introduced a scale from 100 through 900, which is also used in CSS and OpenType, where 400 is regular (roman or plain).
It supports advanced typographic features such as ligatures, old-style numerals, swash variants, fractions, superscript and subscript, small capitalization, glyph substitution, multiple baselines, contextual and stylistic alternate character forms, kerning, line-level justification, ruby characters etc. WPF applications automatically gain support for advanced typography features.

Univers

ZurichLinotype UniversUnivers 55
Attempts to systematize a range of weights led to a numerical classification first used by Adrian Frutiger with the Univers typeface: 35 Extra Light, 45 Light, 55 Medium or Regular, 65 Bold, 75 Extra Bold, 85 Extra Bold, 95 Ultra Bold or Black.
Versions of Univers have been released for almost every major typesetting system, including versions for a wide range of writing systems and with additional features such as schoolbook characters.

Liberation fonts

Liberation SansLiberation SerifLiberation Mono
Some of these sets were created in order to be freely redistributable, for example Red Hat's Liberation fonts and Google's Croscore fonts, which duplicate the PostScript set and other common fonts used in Microsoft software such as Calibri.
Liberation is the collective name of four TrueType font families: Liberation Sans, Liberation Sans Narrow, Liberation Serif, and Liberation Mono.

Serif

old-styleTransitionalserifs
Although most typefaces are characterised by their use of serifs, there are superfamilies that incorporate serif (antiqua) and sans-serif (grotesque) or even intermediate slab serif (Egyptian) or semi-serif fonts with the same base outlines.
In typography, a serif is a small line or stroke regularly attached to the end of a larger stroke in a letter or symbol within a particular font or family of fonts.

X-height

corpus sizeexx height
Font-wide metrics include cap height (the height of the capitals), x-height (the height of the lower-case letters) and ascender height, descender depth, and the font bounding box.
They then increase again for optical sizes of font designed for small print, such as captions, so that they can be clearly read printed small.

Times New Roman

Times RomanTimesClaritas
Times New Roman was designed with the goal of having small width, to fit more text into a newspaper.
This production of what are now called stylistic alternates to suit national tastes was common at the time, and many alternates were also offered for Gill Sans for use in Europe.

Small caps

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These include the look of digits (text figures) and the minuscules, which may be smaller versions of the capital letters (small caps) although the script has developed characteristic shapes for them.
The OpenType font standard provides support for transformations from normal letters to small caps by two feature tags, and.

PostScript

PSPostScript 3.EPS, .PS
A particularly important basic set of fonts that became an early standard in digital printing was the Core Font Set included in the PostScript printing system developed by Apple and Adobe.
PostScript Level 2 was introduced in 1991, and included several improvements: improved speed and reliability, support for in-RIP separations, image decompression (for example, JPEG images could be rendered by a PostScript program), support for composite fonts, and the form mechanism for caching reusable content.

Font embedding

Embeddedembedded bitmapped fontsembedded font
Font embedding is the inclusion of font files inside an electronic document.

Clip font

Clip fonts or split fonts are non-Unicode fonts that assign glyphs of Brahmic scripts, such as Devanagari, at code positions intended for glyphs of the Latin script or to produce glyphs not found in Unicode by using its Private Use Area (PUA).

Display typeface

displaydisplay usedisplay face
Some professional digital typefaces include fonts that are optimised for certain sizes, for instance by using a thinner stroke weight if they are intended for large-size display use, or by using ink traps if they are to be printed at small size on poor-quality paper.
Many modern digital typeface families such as Neutraface, Neue Haas Grotesk, and Arno include both text styles and display companion optical sizes with a more delicate design.