Food security

food insecurityfood supplyfood insecurefoodfood suppliesfood justicefood-insecuresecurityfood accessfood crisis
Food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals' accessibility to it, where accessibility includes affordability.wikipedia
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Hunger

satietyhungryfeeling full
Individuals who are food secure do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.
Food insecurity occurs when people are at risk, or worried about, not being able to meet their preferences for food, including in terms of raw calories and nutritional value. In the FAO definition, all hungry people are food insecure, but not all food insecure people are hungry (though there is a very strong overlap between hunger and severe food insecurity.). The FAO have reported that food insecurity quite often results in simultaneous stunted growth for children, and obesity for adults.

Food and Agriculture Organization

FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsUnited Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, or FAO, identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access, utilization, and stability. The FAO, World Food Programme (WFP), and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) collaborate to produce The State of Food Insecurity in the World.
FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all.

Famine scales

famine scalefood insecurestages of food insecurity
The stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine.
Famine scales are the ways in which degrees of food security are measured, from situations in which an entire population has adequate food to full-scale famine.

World Food Programme

WFPWorld Food ProgramWorld Food Programme (WFP)
The FAO, World Food Programme (WFP), and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) collaborate to produce The State of Food Insecurity in the World.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.

Famine

faminesfood shortagesfood crisis
The stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine.
The Code introduced the first famine scale: three levels of food insecurity were defined: near-scarcity, scarcity, and famine.

Cassava

maniocyucamandioca
Other crops have declined sharply over the same period, including rye, yam, sweet potato (by −45% ), cassava (by −38% ), coconut, sorghum (by −52% ) and millets (by −45% ).
The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.

Starvation

starvedstarvingstarve
Individuals who are food secure do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.
The Rome Declaration on World Food Security outlines several policies aimed at increasing food security and, consequently, preventing starvation.

Sustainability

sustainableenvironmental sustainabilityunsustainable
David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (NRIFN), place in their study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 210 million.
2) Food – End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Green Revolution

agricultural revolutioncommercial large-scale monoculturehigh-yield IR8 rice cultivar
Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, many of which are petroleum products, making agriculture increasingly reliant on petroleum.
The effects of the Green Revolution on global food security are difficult to assess because of the complexities involved in food systems.

Right to food

foodaccess of foodadequate food
The United Nations (UN) recognized the Right to Food in the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, and has since noted that it is vital for the enjoyment of all other rights.
The right to food protects the right of all human beings to be free from hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition.

International Fund for Agricultural Development

IFADInternational Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
The FAO, World Food Programme (WFP), and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) collaborate to produce The State of Food Insecurity in the World.
The threat to food security in developing countries increased in stride.

School feeding in low-income countries

more surplus food to foreign school-lunch programsschool feeding & nutritionschool feeding programs
Conditional transfers could include school feeding programs, while unconditional transfers could include general food distribution, emergency food aid or cash transfers.
School feeding programs have been defined by the World Bank as "targeted social safety nets that provide both educational and health benefits to the most vulnerable children, thereby increasing enrollment rates, reducing absenteeism, and improving food security at the household level".

World Food Day

World Food Day was established on October 16, in honor of the date that the FAO was founded in 1945.
The day is celebrated widely by many other organizations concerned with food security, including the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

OREC

On April 30, 2008, Thailand, one of the world's biggest rice exporters, announced the creation of the Organisation of Rice Exporting Countries with the potential to develop into a price-fixing cartel for rice.
Statements by the involved countries in early May indicated that a price-fixing cartel would only serve to "worsen food security" and the organization's purpose is "to contribute to ensuring food stability, not just in an individual country but also to address food shortages in the region and the world".

International Food Policy Research Institute

IFPRI[IFPRIISNAR
The partnership Compact2025, led by IFPRI with the involvement of UN organisations, NGOs and private foundations develops and disseminates evidence-based advice to politicians and other decision-makers aimed at ending hunger and undernutrition in the coming 10 years, by 2025. It bases its claim that hunger can be ended by 2025 on a report by Shenggen Fan and Paul Polman that analyzed the experiences from China, Vietnam, Brazil and Thailand and concludes that eliminating hunger and undernutrition was possible by 2025.
Research topics have included low crop and animal productivity, and environmental degradation, water management, fragile lands, property rights, collective action, sustainable intensification of agricultural production, the impact of climate change on poor farmers, the problems and opportunities of biotechnology, food security, micronutrient malnutrition, microfinance programs, urban food security, resource allocation within households, and school feeding in low-income countries.

Food storage

storagestorage of foodaccumulate food
To counteract the severe food security issues caused by global catastrophic risks, years of food storage has been proposed.
Food preservation, storage, and transport, including timely delivery to consumers, are important to food security, especially for the majority of people throughout the world who rely on others to produce their food.

International Water Management Institute

International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
According to the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, a major study led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), managing rainwater and soil moisture more effectively, and using supplemental and small-scale irrigation, hold the key to helping the greatest number of poor people.
Research at the Institute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim of underpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmental processes.

2007–08 world food price crisis

2007–2008 world food price crisisglobal food crisis2007-2008 world food price crisis
Food price crisis
Although the media spotlight focused on the riots that ensued in the face of high prices, the ongoing crisis of food insecurity had been years in the making.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations stated in The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2003 that countries that have reduced hunger often had rapid economic growth, specifically in their agricultural sectors.
Demand for non-food biofuel crops, development of former farm lands, rising transportation costs, climate change, growing consumer demand in China and India, and population growth, are threatening food security in many parts of the world.

Sustainable Development Goals

2030 Agenda for Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development GoalSustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
The main global policy to reduce hunger and poverty are the recently approved Sustainable Development Goals.
==== "End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture".

Food vs. fuel

food vs fuelgrain supplyat the expense of growing food
Food vs fuel
Food versus fuel is the dilemma regarding the risk of diverting farmland or crops for biofuels production to the detriment of the food supply.

Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources

cryoconservationcryopreservation of genetic resources
Therefore, efforts have been made by governments and non-governmental organizations to conserve livestock biodiversity through strategies such as Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources.
Indigenous livestock are critical to sustainable agricultural development and food security, due to their: adaptation to environment and endemic diseases, indispensable part in local production systems, social and cultural significance, and importance to local rural economies.

Agricultural subsidy

agricultural subsidiesfarm subsidiessubsidies
Agricultural subsidies are paid to farmers and agribusinesses to supplement their income, manage the supply of their commodities and influence the cost and supply of those commodities.
The lower price of energy-dense foods such as grains and sugars could be one reason why low-income people and food insecure people in industrialized countries are more vulnerable to being overweight and obese.

Integrated Food Security Phase Classification

IPCIPC Phase 4
Integrated Food Security Phase Classification
The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), also known as IPC scale, is a tool for improving food security analysis and decision-making.

Nuclear winter

aftermath of a nuclear warcold weatherdestructive potential
Solar blocking is not limited to natural causes as nuclear winter is also possible, which refers to the scenario involving widespread nuclear war and burning of cities that release soot into the stratosphere that would stay there for about 10 years.
There is however the danger that if a sudden rush to food stockpiling occurs without the buffering effect offered by Victory gardens etc., it may exacerbate current food security problems by elevating present food prices.