Food security

food insecurityfood supplyfood insecurefoodfood suppliesfood justicefood-insecuresecurityfood accessfood crisis
Food security is a measure of the availability of food and individuals' accessibility to it, where accessibility includes affordability.wikipedia
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Food and Agriculture Organization

FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsUnited Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, or FAO, identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access, utilization, and stability. The FAO, World Food Programme (WFP), and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) collaborate to produce The State of Food Insecurity in the World.
FAO is also a source of knowledge and information, and helps developing countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices, ensuring good nutrition and food security for all.

Famine scales

famine scalefood insecurestages of food insecurity
The stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine.
Famine scales are the ways in which degrees of food security are measured, from situations in which an entire population has adequate food to full-scale famine.

World Food Programme

WFPWorld Food ProgramWorld Food Programme (WFP)
The FAO, World Food Programme (WFP), and International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) collaborate to produce The State of Food Insecurity in the World.
The World Food Programme (WFP) is the food-assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.

Plant breeding

breedingplant breederplant biotechnology
International development agencies believe that breeding new crops is important for ensuring food security by developing new varieties that are higher yielding, disease resistant, drought tolerant or regionally adapted to different environments and growing conditions.

Integrated Food Security Phase Classification

IPCIPC Phase 4
Integrated Food Security Phase Classification
The Integrated Food Security Phase Classification (IPC), also known as IPC scale, is a tool for improving food security analysis and decision-making.

Feed the Future Initiative

Feed the Future
The Feed the Future Initiative (FTF) was launched in 2010 by the United States government and the Obama Administration to address global hunger and food insecurity.

Crop wild relative

crop wild relativeswild relatives
Their conservation and sustainable use is very important for improving agricultural production, increasing food security, and maintaining a healthy environment.

Food industry

food productionfoodFood processing
Regulation: local, regional, national, and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, including food quality, food security, food safety, marketing/advertising, and industry lobbying activities


Ug99 is a lineage of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), which is present in wheat fields in several countries in Africa and the Middle East and is predicted to spread rapidly through these regions and possibly further afield, potentially causing a wheat production disaster that would affect food security worldwide.

Jacques Diouf

The synod discussed several pastoral issues that are not directly related to religion, and which involve cooperation between the Catholic Church and the United Nations, such as food security, the status of African health care, and attempts to solve conflicts and achieve peace on the continent.


faminesfood shortagesfood crisis
The stages of food insecurity range from food secure situations to full-scale famine.
The Code introduced the first famine scale: three levels of food insecurity were defined: near-scarcity, scarcity, and famine.

Water scarcity in Africa

African societies
Because the majority of Africa remains dependent on an agricultural lifestyle and 80% to 90% of all families in rural Africa rely upon producing their own food, water scarcity translates to a loss of food security.


Other crops have declined sharply over the same period, including rye, yam, sweet potato (by −45% ), cassava (by −38% ), coconut, sorghum (by −52% ) and millets (by −45% ).
The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.


Individuals who are food secure do not live in hunger or fear of starvation.
The Rome Declaration on World Food Security outlines several policies aimed at increasing food security and, consequently, preventing starvation.

World Food Day

World Food Day was established on October 16, in honor of the date that the FAO was founded in 1945.
The day is celebrated widely by many other organizations concerned with food security, including the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development.

School feeding in low-income countries

more surplus food to foreign school-lunch programsschool feeding & nutritionschool feeding programs
Conditional transfers could include school feeding programs, while unconditional transfers could include general food distribution, emergency food aid or cash transfers.
School feeding programs have been defined by the World Bank as "targeted social safety nets that provide both educational and health benefits to the most vulnerable children, thereby increasing enrollment rates, reducing absenteeism, and improving food security at the household level".

Food sovereignty

food justice
Food sovereignty
Food sovereignty was born in response to campaigners' disillusion with food security, the dominant global discourse on food provisioning and policy.

Food storage

storagestorage of foodaccumulate food
To counteract the severe food security issues caused by global catastrophic risks, years of food storage has been proposed.
Food preservation, storage, and transport, including timely delivery to consumers, are important to food security, especially for the majority of people throughout the world who rely on others to produce their food.

Food vs. fuel

food vs fuelgrain supplyat the expense of growing food
Food vs fuel
Food versus fuel is the dilemma regarding the risk of diverting farmland or crops for biofuels production to the detriment of the food supply.

2007–08 world food price crisis

2007–2008 world food price crisisglobal food crisis2007-2008 world food price crisis
Food price crisis
Although the media spotlight focused on the riots that ensued in the face of high prices, the ongoing crisis of food insecurity had been years in the making.


sustainableenvironmental sustainabilityunsustainable
David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (NRIFN), place in their study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 210 million.
2) Food – End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

International Water Management Institute

International Water Management Institute (IWMI)
According to the Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture, a major study led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), managing rainwater and soil moisture more effectively, and using supplemental and small-scale irrigation, hold the key to helping the greatest number of poor people.
Research at the Institute focuses on improving how water and land resources are managed, with the aim of underpinning food security and reducing poverty while safeguarding vital environmental processes.

Nutritional anthropology

nutritional economics
Nutritional economics
Nutritional anthropology is the interplay between human biology, economic systems, nutritional status and food security, and how changes in the former affect the latter.

International Food Policy Research Institute

The partnership Compact2025, led by IFPRI with the involvement of UN organisations, NGOs and private foundations develops and disseminates evidence-based advice to politicians and other decision-makers aimed at ending hunger and undernutrition in the coming 10 years, by 2025. It bases its claim that hunger can be ended by 2025 on a report by Shenggen Fan and Paul Polman that analyzed the experiences from China, Vietnam, Brazil and Thailand and concludes that eliminating hunger and undernutrition was possible by 2025.
Research topics have included low crop and animal productivity, and environmental degradation, water management, fragile lands, property rights, collective action, sustainable intensification of agricultural production, the impact of climate change on poor farmers, the problems and opportunities of biotechnology, food security, micronutrient malnutrition, microfinance programs, urban food security, resource allocation within households, and school feeding in low-income countries.

Effects of global warming

effects of climate changeimpacts of climate changeeffects
Easterling et al. (2007) assessed studies that made quantitative projections of climate change impacts on food security.