For Whom the Bell Tolls

novel of the same name1940 novelbook of the same namefilm adaptationIt tollsnovelnovel of the same titleRobert Jordansame title
For Whom the Bell Tolls is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1940.wikipedia
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Ernest Hemingway

HemingwayHemingwayesqueE. Hemingway
For Whom the Bell Tolls is a novel by Ernest Hemingway published in 1940.
He based For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940) on his experience there.

The Sun Also Rises

novelBrettFiesta'' (novel)
The novel is regarded as one of Hemingway's best works, along with The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, and The Old Man and the Sea.
Two decades later, in 1947, Scribner's released three of Hemingway's works as a boxed set, including The Sun Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, and For Whom the Bell Tolls.

Sun Valley, Idaho

Sun ValleyBill JanssHarriman Cup
Ernest Hemingway wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in Havana, Cuba; Key West, Florida; and Sun Valley, Idaho in 1939.
Author Ernest Hemingway completed For Whom the Bell Tolls, while staying in suite 206 of the Lodge in the fall of 1939.

Key West

City of Key WestKey West, FloridaFlorida
Ernest Hemingway wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls in Havana, Cuba; Key West, Florida; and Sun Valley, Idaho in 1939.
During his stay he wrote or worked on Death in the Afternoon, For Whom the Bell Tolls, The Snows of Kilimanjaro, and The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.

Hotel Ambos Mundos (Havana)

Hotel Ambos Mundos
In Cuba, he lived in the Hotel Ambos Mundos where he worked on the manuscript.
Hemingway began his novel For Whom the Bell Tolls, a novel of the Spanish Civil War which he had witnessed over the previous several years, in the room in the Ambos Mundos, on March 1, 1939.

Nicholas Murray Butler

Nicholas M. ButlerButlerButler, Nicholas Murray
However, Nicholas Murray Butler, president of Columbia University ex officio head of the Pulitzer board at that time, found the novel offensive and persuaded the board to reverse its determination; no award was given for letters that year.
In 1941, the Pulitzer Prize fiction jury selected Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls.

Anti-fascism

anti-fascistantifascistanti-Nazi
When another band of anti-fascist guerrillas, led by El Sordo, is surrounded and killed during a raid they conducted in support of Jordan's mission, Pablo steals the dynamite detonators and exploder, hoping to prevent the demolition and thereby avoid fascist reprisals.
Notable anti-fascists who worked internationally against Franco included: George Orwell (who fought in the POUM militia and wrote Homage to Catalonia about this experience), Ernest Hemingway (a supporter of the International Brigades who wrote For Whom the Bell Tolls about this experience), and radical journalist Martha Gellhorn.

Funeral toll

bellbell tollminute bell
Hemingway quotes part of the meditation (using Donne's original spelling) in the book's epigraph, which in turn refers to the practice of funeral tolling:
For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway (quoting John Donne)

For Whom the Bell Tolls (film)

For Whom the Bell Tollsfilm adaptationFor Whom the Bell Tolls'' (film)
A film adaptation of Hemingway's novel, directed by Sam Wood, was released in 1943 starring Gary Cooper and Ingrid Bergman. It was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor and Best Actress; however, only the Greek actress Katina Paxinou won an Oscar for her portrayal of Pilar.
The screenwriter Dudley Nichols based his script on the 1940 novel For Whom the Bell Tolls by American novelist Ernest Hemingway.

Ronda

ArundaRonda, Spain
The famous and pivotal scene described in Chapter 10, in which Pilar describes the execution of various fascist figures in her village is drawn from events that took place in Ronda in 1936.
The scene in chapter 10 of Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls, describing the 1936 execution of Fascist sympathisers in a (fictional) village who are thrown off a cliff, is considered to be modeled on actual events of the time in Ronda.

Ingrid Bergman

Bergman
A film adaptation of Hemingway's novel, directed by Sam Wood, was released in 1943 starring Gary Cooper and Ingrid Bergman. It was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor and Best Actress; however, only the Greek actress Katina Paxinou won an Oscar for her portrayal of Pilar.
The film was taken from Ernest Hemingway's novel of the same title.

Thou

theethedidst
Thus, Hemingway uses "thou", archaic in English, to communicate the important difference in Spanish between the "familiar" pronoun "tú" and the "formal" "usted" (see T-V distinction).
Ernest Hemingway, in his novel For Whom the Bell Tolls, uses the forms "thou" and "you" in order to reflect the relationships between his Spanish-speaking characters and to better represent in English the Spanish language in which both formal (usted) and familiar (tú) second-person pronouns still exist.

For Whom the Bell Tolls (TV series)

For Whom the Bell Tollsanother adaptationFor Whom the Bell Tolls'' (TV series)
In 1965, the BBC produced another adaptation, as a four-part serial (miniseries in American English).
For Whom the Bell Tolls is a British television series first aired by BBC in 1965, based on the novel by Ernest Hemingway.

Hemingway & Gellhorn

The 2012 film Hemingway and Gellhorn depicts Hemingway's time in Spain during Spanish Civil War when he was completing work on For Whom the Bell Tolls, and his relationship with the American novelist, travel writer and war correspondent Martha Gellhorn, who he credited with having inspired him to write the novel, and to whom he dedicated it.
He credits her with having inspired him to write the novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940), and dedicates the work to her.

Miniseries

mini-seriestelevision miniseriesmini series
In 1965, the BBC produced another adaptation, as a four-part serial (miniseries in American English).
Very rarely the stories were split into several episodes, like 1955 Mr. Lincoln from Omnibus series, which was presented in two parts, or 1959 adaptation of For Whom the Bell Tolls from Playhouse 90 series, which was initially planned by the director John Frankenheimer to consist of three parts, but ultimately was broadcast as two 90-minute installments.

Gary Cooper

Baroda ProductionsCooperCooper, Gary
A film adaptation of Hemingway's novel, directed by Sam Wood, was released in 1943 starring Gary Cooper and Ingrid Bergman. It was nominated for nine Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor and Best Actress; however, only the Greek actress Katina Paxinou won an Oscar for her portrayal of Pilar.
Soon after the publication of Ernest Hemingway's novel For Whom the Bell Tolls, Paramount paid $150,000 for the film rights with the express intent of casting Cooper in the lead role of Robert Jordan, an American explosives expert who fights alongside the Republican loyalists during the Spanish Civil War.

Takarazuka Revue

TakarazukaotokoyakuTakarazuka Creative Arts
In 1978, the Takarazuka Revue adapted the novel as a musical drama, produced by Star Troupe and starring Ran Ootori as Robert Jordan and Kurara Haruka as Maria. Cosmos Troupe revived the show in 2010.
Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls

For Whom the Bell Tolls (Metallica song)

For Whom the Bell TollsFor Whom the Bell Tolls" (Metallica song)
Metallica's second album Ride the Lightning (1984), features a song entitled "For Whom the Bell Tolls," which can be seen as a lyrical adaptation of a particular scene from the book (chapter 27).
The song was inspired by Ernest Hemingway's 1940 novel of the same name about the dishonor of modern warfare and the protagonist's imminent doom during the bloody Spanish Civil War.

Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century

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Le Monde 100 Books of the Century

Pulitzer Prize

PulitzerPulitzer-PrizePulitzer Prizes
In 1941 the Pulitzer Prize committee for letters unanimously recommended For Whom the Bell Tolls be awarded the prize for that year.
1941 Novel Prize: The Advisory Board elected to overrule the jury and recommended For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway. However, Columbia University president Nicholas Murray Butler implored the committee to reconsider, citing the potential association between the University and the novel's frank sexual content; instead, no award was given. Twelve years later, Hemingway was awarded the 1953 Fiction Prize for The Old Man and the Sea.

Mikhail Koltsov

KoltsovMikhail Kotsov
Mikhail Koltsov, Soviet journalist was the Karkov character in the story
Ernest Hemingway, in his novel For Whom the Bell Tolls, based on the war in Spain, represented Koltsov as the character Karkov.

POUM

Workers' Party of Marxist Unificationdissident MarxistsP.O.U.M. Militia
Andreu Nin, one of the founders of the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM), the party mocked by Karkov in Chapter 18.
Discussion of POUM in Hemingway's For Whom The Bell Tolls (Collier edition, p. 247).

Playhouse 90

In 1959, a television adaptation, directed by John Frankenheimer, was broadcast in two parts on CBS's Playhouse 90, starring Jason Robards and Maria Schell as Robert Jordan and Maria, with Nehemiah Persoff as Pablo, Maureen Stapleton as Pilar, and Eli Wallach as the gypsy Rafael.
A.E. Hotchner adapted Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls into a two-part format (March 12 and March 19, 1959).

Ride the Lightning

Fight Fire with FireExcept for Me and My LightningKtulu
Metallica's second album Ride the Lightning (1984), features a song entitled "For Whom the Bell Tolls," which can be seen as a lyrical adaptation of a particular scene from the book (chapter 27).
The lyrics were inspired by Ernest Hemingway's 1940 novel of the same name, which explores the horror and dishonor of modern warfare.

Robert Hale Merriman

Robert MerrimanMajor Merriman
Robert Hale Merriman, leader of the American Volunteers in the International Brigades, and his wife Marion, were well known to Hemingway and served possibly as a model for Hemingway's own hero.
The 6'4" Merriman is believed to be have been the inspiration for Robert Jordan in Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls. Merriman and Hemingway briefly met in Madrid, and Hemingway was "deeply impressed" with the young idealist.