Forensic science

forensicforensicsforensic scientistforensic examinationforensic analysisforensic scientistsforensic investigationcrime scene investigatorcriminalistcriminalistics
Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.wikipedia
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Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified

a pioneering workEgy kínai halottkém feljegyzéseiWashing Away of Wrongs
The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu (translated as Washing Away of Wrongs ), written in China in 1248 by Song Ci (宋慈, 1186–1249), a director of justice, jail and supervision, during the Song dynasty.
The author combined many historical cases of forensic science with his own experiences and wrote the book with an eye to avoiding injustice.

Criminal investigation

investigationprobecriminal investigations
Forensic science, also known as criminalistics, is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.
Modern-day criminal investigations commonly employ many modern scientific techniques known collectively as forensic science.

Anthropometry

anthropometricanthropometricsBertillonage
The French police officer Alphonse Bertillon was the first to apply the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby creating an identification system based on physical measurements.
The history of anthropometry includes and spans various concepts, both scientific and pseudoscientific, such as craniometry, paleoanthropology, biological anthropology, phrenology, physiognomy, forensics, criminology, phylogeography, human origins, and cranio-facial description, as well as correlations between various anthropometrics and personal identity, mental typology, personality, cranial vault and brain size, and other factors.

Expert witness

expert testimonyexpert evidenceexpert opinion
In addition to their laboratory role, forensic scientists testify as expert witnesses in both criminal and civil cases and can work for either the prosecution or the defense.
Although experts can testify in any case in which their expertise is relevant, criminal cases are more likely to use forensic scientists or forensic psychologists, whereas civil cases, such as personal injury, may use forensic engineers, forensic accountants, employment consultants or care experts.

Footprint

footprintspawprintPaw prints
Bertillon created many other forensics techniques, including forensic document examination, the use of galvanoplastic compounds to preserve footprints, ballistics, and the dynamometer, used to determine the degree of force used in breaking and entering.
Analysis of footprints and shoeprints is a specialist part of forensic science.

Alphonse Bertillon

BertillonBertillon methodBertillion
The French police officer Alphonse Bertillon was the first to apply the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement, thereby creating an identification system based on physical measurements.
Bertillon also created many other forensics techniques, including the use of galvanoplastic compounds to preserve footprints, ballistics, and the dynamometer, used to determine the degree of force used in breaking and entering.

Pathology

pathologistpathologicalpathologies
Two Italian surgeons, Fortunato Fidelis and Paolo Zacchia, laid the foundation of modern pathology by studying changes that occurred in the structure of the body as the result of disease.
Forensic pathology is a major component in the trans-disciplinary field of forensic science.

Song dynasty

SongSouthern Song dynastyNorthern Song dynasty
The first written account of using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu (translated as Washing Away of Wrongs ), written in China in 1248 by Song Ci (宋慈, 1186–1249), a director of justice, jail and supervision, during the Song dynasty.
The physician and judge known as Song Ci (1186–1249) wrote a pioneering work of forensic science on the examination of corpses in order to determine cause of death (strangulation, poisoning, drowning, blows, etc.) and to prove whether death resulted from murder, suicide, or accidental death.

Alec Jeffreys

Sir Alec JeffreysAlec John JeffreysAlec J. Jeffreys
It was developed by Sir Alec Jeffreys, who realized that variation in the genetic code could be used to identify individuals and to tell individuals apart from one another.
Sir Alec John Jeffreys, (born 9 January 1950) is a British geneticist, who developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes.

Francis Galton

Sir Francis GaltonGaltonGalton, Francis
Faulds wrote to Charles Darwin with a description of his method, but, too old and ill to work on it, Darwin gave the information to his cousin, Francis Galton, who was interested in anthropology.
He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science.

Paul Uhlenhuth

The Uhlenhuth test, or the antigen–antibody precipitin test for species, was invented by Paul Uhlenhuth in 1901 and could distinguish human blood from animal blood, based on the discovery that the blood of different species had one or more characteristic proteins.
He is famous in the annals of forensic science for developing the species precipitin test, known as the Uhlenhuth test, which could distinguish human blood from animal blood in 1901, a discovery which had tremendous importance in criminal justice in the 20th century.

Sherlock Holmes

HolmesSherlockHolmesian
Dr. Edmond Locard, became known as the "Sherlock Holmes of France".
Referring to himself as a "consulting detective" in the stories, Holmes is known for his proficiency with observation, forensic science, and logical reasoning that borders on the fantastic, which he employs when investigating cases for a wide variety of clients, including Scotland Yard.

Locard's exchange principle

principle of the tracetransferred
He formulated the basic principle of forensic science: "Every contact leaves a trace", which became known as Locard's exchange principle.
In forensic science, Locard's exchange principle holds that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be used as forensic evidence.

Archibald Reiss

R.A. Reiss Archibald ReissArčibald Rajs
In 1909, Archibald Reiss founded the Institut de police scientifique of the University of Lausanne (UNIL), the first school of forensic science in the world.
Rudolphe Archibald Reiss (8 July 1875 – 7 August 1929) was a German-Swiss criminology-pioneer, forensic scientist, professor and writer.

Questioned document examination

forensic document examinationforensic document examinerQuestioned document examiner
Bertillon created many other forensics techniques, including forensic document examination, the use of galvanoplastic compounds to preserve footprints, ballistics, and the dynamometer, used to determine the degree of force used in breaking and entering.
In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law.

Edmond Locard

Edmund LocardLocardLocard, E
Dr. Edmond Locard, became known as the "Sherlock Holmes of France".
Dr. Edmond Locard (13 December 1877 – 4 April 1966) was a French criminologist, the pioneer in forensic science who became known as the "Sherlock Holmes of France".

University of Lausanne

LausanneLausanne UniversityAcademy of Lausanne
In 1909, Archibald Reiss founded the Institut de police scientifique of the University of Lausanne (UNIL), the first school of forensic science in the world.
In 1909, Rodolphe Archibald Reiss founded the first school of forensic science in the world: the Institut de police scientifique.

Arsine

AsH 3 arsanearsenic trihydride
He combined a sample containing arsenic with sulfuric acid and arsenic-free zinc, resulting in arsine gas.
AsH 3 is also well known in forensic science because it is a chemical intermediate in the detection of arsenic poisoning.

American Academy of Forensic Sciences

American Academy of Forensic Science
American Academy of Forensic Sciences (founded 1948), publishers of the Journal of Forensic Sciences; the Canadian Society of Forensic Science (founded 1953), publishers of the Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science; the British Academy of Forensic Sciences (founded 1960), publishers of Medicine, Science and the Law, and the Australian Academy of Forensic Sciences (founded 1967), publishers of the Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences.
The American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) is a society for forensic science professionals, and was founded in 1948.

Colin Pitchfork

Cracking the Killers' CodeEnderby murdersFootpath Murders
A friend of Colin Pitchfork was heard saying that he had given his sample to the police claiming to be Colin.
Using forensic science techniques available at the time, police linked a semen sample taken from her body to a person with type A blood and an enzyme profile that matched only 10% of males.

DNA profiling

DNA evidenceDNA fingerprintinggenetic fingerprinting
Forensic DNA analysis was first used in 1984.
DNA profiling is a forensic technique in criminal investigations, comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime.

Fingerprint

fingerprintingfingerprint recognitionfingerprint sensor
Although his central methods were soon to be supplanted by fingerprinting, "his other contributions like the mug shot and the systematization of crime-scene photography remain in place to this day."
The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science.

Bloodstain pattern analysis

blood spatter analystblood spatterblood spatter pattern analysis
It is one of the several specialties of forensic science.

Blood residue

blood stainsblood evidencebloodstain
He used analytical chemistry for blood residue analysis as well as toxicology examination and determination for poisons.
In forensic science, blood residue can help investigators identify weapons, reconstruct a criminal action, and link suspects to the crime.

Autopsy

post-mortemautopsiespost mortem
Bond's assessment was based on his own examination of the most extensively mutilated victim and the post mortem notes from the four previous canonical murders.
Forensic science involves the application of the sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system.