Forensic science

Ambroise Paré's surgical work laid the groundwork for the development of forensic techniques in the following centuries.
This is an example and explanation of extractor/ejector marks on casings.
Apparatus for the arsenic test, devised by James Marsh
Entry/exit wounds based on the distance the firearm was discharged
Frontispiece from Bertillon's Identification anthropométrique (1893), demonstrating the measurements needed for his anthropometric identification system
Fingerprints taken by William Herschel 1859/60
Women clerical employees of the LA Police Department getting fingerprinted and photographed in 1928
Police brought to bear the latest techniques of forensic science in their attempts to identify and capture the serial killer Jack the Ripper.
The popular fictional character Sherlock Holmes was in many ways ahead of his time in his use of forensic analysis.
Shoeprints have long been used to match a pair of shoes to a crime scene.
Alec Jeffreys invented the DNA profiling technique in 1984.
Agents of the United States Army Criminal Investigation Division investigate a crime scene.
Police forensic investigation in Ashton-under-Lyne, England, using a tent to protect the crime scene

Application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

- Forensic science
Ambroise Paré's surgical work laid the groundwork for the development of forensic techniques in the following centuries.

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The friction ridges on a finger

Fingerprint

Impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

Impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger.

The friction ridges on a finger
A fingerprint arch
A fingerprint loop
A fingerprint whorl
A fingerprint arch
A fingerprint created by the friction ridge structure
Exemplar prints on paper using ink
Barely visible latent prints on a knife
Fingerprint being scanned
3D fingerprint
Use of fine powder and brush to reveal latent fingerprints
Fingerprint dusting of a burglary scene
A city fingerprint identification room
A fingerprint on a cartridge case
A Kelvin probe scan of the same cartridge case with the fingerprint detected. The Kelvin probe can easily cope with the round surface of the cartridge case.
A city fingerprint identification office
Latent fingerprint analysis process
Nine fingerprint patterns identified by Jan Evangelista Purkyně
Fingerprints taken by William Herschel 1859/60
Fingerprints used instead of signatures on an Indian legal document of 1952
Female clerical employees of the Los Angeles Police Department being fingerprinted and photographed in 1928
Criminal Alvin Karpis had his fingerprints surgically removed in 1933
Ridge ending
Bifurcation
Short ridge (dot)
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The fingerprint sensor of a Lenovo ThinkPad T440p, released in 2013

The recovery of partial fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science.

Venous (darker) and arterial (brighter) blood

Blood

Body fluid in the circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

Body fluid in the circulatory system of humans and other vertebrates that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

Venous (darker) and arterial (brighter) blood
Hemoglobin, a globular protein
green = haem (or heme) groups
red & blue = protein subunits
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a normal red blood cell (left), a platelet (middle), and a white blood cell (right)
Vertebrate red blood cell types, measurements in micrometers
Frog red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Turtle red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Chicken red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Human red blood cells magnified 1000 times
Circulation of blood through the human heart
Basic hemoglobin saturation curve. It is moved to the right in higher acidity (more dissolved carbon dioxide) and to the left in lower acidity (less dissolved carbon dioxide)
Capillary blood from a bleeding finger
Venous blood collected during blood donation
Jan Janský is credited with the first classification of blood into four types (A, B, AB, and O)
Human blood fractioned by centrifugation: Plasma (upper, yellow layer), buffy coat (middle, thin white layer) and erythrocyte layer (bottom, red layer) can be seen.
Blood circulation: Red = oxygenated, blue = deoxygenated
Illustration depicting formed elements of blood
Two tubes of EDTA-anticoagulated blood.

Blood residue can help forensic investigators identify weapons, reconstruct a criminal action, and link suspects to the crime.

Sir Francis Galton by Charles Wellington Furse, given to the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1954

Francis Galton

English Victorian era polymath: a statistician, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician and a proponent of social Darwinism, eugenics and scientific racism.

English Victorian era polymath: a statistician, sociologist, psychologist, anthropologist, tropical explorer, geographer, inventor, meteorologist, proto-geneticist, psychometrician and a proponent of social Darwinism, eugenics and scientific racism.

Sir Francis Galton by Charles Wellington Furse, given to the National Portrait Gallery, London in 1954
Portrait of Galton by Octavius Oakley, 1840
Galton in the 1850s
Galton in his later years
Sir Francis Galton, 1890s
Galton's 1889 illustration of the quincunx or Galton board.
Galton's correlation diagram 1886
Francis Galton (right), aged 87, on the stoep at Fox Holm, Cobham, with the statistician Karl Pearson.
Louisa Jane Butler

He devised a method for classifying fingerprints that proved useful in forensic science.

The printer used to print a document can be forensically established using the Machine Identification Code.

Questioned document examination

The printer used to print a document can be forensically established using the Machine Identification Code.

In forensic science, questioned document examination (QDE) is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law.

Henry Faulds

Henry Faulds

Scottish doctor, missionary and scientist who is noted for the development of fingerprinting.

Scottish doctor, missionary and scientist who is noted for the development of fingerprinting.

Henry Faulds

As a result of this interchange some controversy has arisen about the inventor of modern forensic fingerprinting.

Edmond Locard

Dr. Edmond Locard (13 December 1877 – 4 May 1966) was a French criminologist, the pioneer in forensic science who became known as the "Sherlock Holmes of France".

Headquarters in Colorado Springs.

American Academy of Forensic Sciences

Headquarters in Colorado Springs.

The American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) is a society for forensic science professionals, and was founded in 1948.

Nomenclature of human bones in Sòng Cí: Xǐ-yuān lù jí-zhèng, edited by Ruǎn Qíxīn (1843).

Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified

Chinese book written by Song Ci in 1247 during the Song Dynasty as a handbook for coroners.

Chinese book written by Song Ci in 1247 during the Song Dynasty as a handbook for coroners.

Nomenclature of human bones in Sòng Cí: Xǐ-yuān lù jí-zhèng, edited by Ruǎn Qíxīn (1843).

The author combined many historical cases of forensic science with his own experiences and wrote the book with an eye to avoiding injustice.

Canadian Society of Forensic Science

The Canadian Society of Forensic Science (CSFS) is a professional association aimed at maintaining professional standards and promoting and enhancing the study and stature of forensic science.

Sir Alec Jeffreys, 2009

Alec Jeffreys

Sir Alec Jeffreys, 2009
Alec Jeffreys

Sir Alec John Jeffreys, (born 9 January 1950) is a British geneticist known for developing techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration disputes.