# Formal semantics (linguistics)

**formal semanticsFormal Linguisticsformal semantic analysesformal theories of semanticslinguistic semanticssemanticsemantic representation languagesemantic structuresemantics**

In linguistics, formal semantics seeks to understand linguistic meaning by constructing precise mathematical models of the principles that speakers use to define relations between expressions in a natural language and the world that supports meaningful discourse.wikipedia

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### Meaning (linguistics)

**meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings**

In linguistics, formal semantics seeks to understand linguistic meaning by constructing precise mathematical models of the principles that speakers use to define relations between expressions in a natural language and the world that supports meaningful discourse.

For example, linguistic semantics includes the history of how words have been used in the past; logical semantics includes how people mean and refer in terms of likely intent and assumptions.

### Montague grammar

**MontagueMontague’s universal grammarRichard Montague's approach**

His contribution to linguistic semantics, which is now known as Montague grammar, was the basis for further developments, like the categorial grammar of Bar-Hillel and colleagues, and the more recent type-logical semantics (or grammar) based on Lambek calculus.

Paul Portner, Barbara H. Partee (eds.): Formal Semantics: The Essential Readings, Blackwell, 2002. ISBN: 0-631-21542-5

### Discourse representation theory

**Discourse Representation Structurediscourse representation structuresDRT**

Discourse representation theory

In formal linguistics, discourse representation theory (DRT) is a framework for exploring meaning under a formal semantics approach.

### Richard Montague

**MontagueMontague, RichardMontague, Richard Merett**

Linguists rarely employed formal semantics until Richard Montague showed how English (or any natural language) could be treated like a formal language.

### Computational semantics

**semantic computationSemantics**

Computational semantics

Methods employed usually draw from formal semantics or statistical semantics.

### Semantic parsing

**Semantic parser**

Semantic parsing

Formal semantics (linguistics)

### Linguistics

**linguistlinguisticlinguists**

In linguistics, formal semantics seeks to understand linguistic meaning by constructing precise mathematical models of the principles that speakers use to define relations between expressions in a natural language and the world that supports meaningful discourse.

### Natural language

**linguisticnaturalnatural languages**

In linguistics, formal semantics seeks to understand linguistic meaning by constructing precise mathematical models of the principles that speakers use to define relations between expressions in a natural language and the world that supports meaningful discourse.

### Mathematical logic

**formal logicsymbolic logiclogic**

The mathematical tools used are the confluence of formal logic and formal language theory, especially typed lambda calculi.

### Formal language

**formal language theoryformal languageslanguage**

The mathematical tools used are the confluence of formal logic and formal language theory, especially typed lambda calculi.

### Typed lambda calculus

**typed lambda calculisimply typed λ-termtyped interpretation**

The mathematical tools used are the confluence of formal logic and formal language theory, especially typed lambda calculi.

### Yehoshua Bar-Hillel

**Bar-HillelBar-Hillel, YehoshuaBar Hille**

His contribution to linguistic semantics, which is now known as Montague grammar, was the basis for further developments, like the categorial grammar of Bar-Hillel and colleagues, and the more recent type-logical semantics (or grammar) based on Lambek calculus.

### Categorial grammar

**syntactic calculus**

His contribution to linguistic semantics, which is now known as Montague grammar, was the basis for further developments, like the categorial grammar of Bar-Hillel and colleagues, and the more recent type-logical semantics (or grammar) based on Lambek calculus.

### Linear logic

**⅋**

Another line of inquiry, using linear logic, is Glue semantics, which is based on the idea of "interpretation as deduction", closely related to the "parsing as deduction" paradigm of categorial grammar.

### Glue semantics

Another line of inquiry, using linear logic, is Glue semantics, which is based on the idea of "interpretation as deduction", closely related to the "parsing as deduction" paradigm of categorial grammar.

### Cognitive semantics

Cognitive semantics emerged and developed as a reaction against formal semantics, but there have been recently several attempts at reconciling both positions.

### Frame semantics (linguistics)

**frame semanticscognitive framesemantic frame**

Frame semantics (linguistics)

### Context change potential

In formal semantics, context change potential (CCP) is the way new information reshapes existing understanding.

### Semantics

**semanticsemanticallymeaning**

This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics.

### Allan M. Ramsay

Allan M. Ramsay is a Professor of Formal Linguistics in the School of Computer Science at the University of Manchester.

### Textual entailment

**Recognizing Textual entailment**

Determining whether this relationship holds is an informal task, one which sometimes overlaps with the formal tasks of formal semantics (satisfying a strict condition will usually imply satisfaction of a less strict conditioned); additionally, textual entailment partially subsumes word entailment.

### Barbara Partee

**Partee, Barbara H.B. H. ParteeBarbara H. Partee**

She is one of the founders of contemporary formal semantics in the United States, the author of a number of influential works.

### Formal Semantics in Moscow

Formal Semantics in Moscow (FSiM) is an annual academic conference devoted to the formal semantics and pragmatics of natural language.

### Treebank

**parsed corpusParsed corporasyntactically annotated corpus**

These resources use a formal representation of each sentence's semantic structure.

### Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation

Universal Conceptual Cognitive Annotation (UCCA) is a semantic approach to grammatical representation.