Territory of the Former Qin kingdom and the Jin dynasty in 376.
Former Qin 376 CE
Ruins of Tongwancheng, the capital of the Xia kingdom built in the early 5th century by Xiongnu chieftain Helian Bobo in modern-day Jingbian, in northern Shaanxi province, near the border with Inner Mongolia. Tongwancheng was captured by the Xianbei-led Northern Wei in 427.
Former Qin 376 CE
A mural painting showing a leisurely life scene 384-441 A.D., from the Dingjiazha Tomb No. 5 in Chiu-ch'üan, Later Liang – Northern Liang.
The White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang, commemorating Kumarajiva's white horse which carried the scriptures to China, c. 384.
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The Former Qin, also called Fu Qin (苻秦), (351–394) was a dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in Chinese history ruled by the Di ethnicity.

- Former Qin

The term "Sixteen Kingdoms" was first used by the 6th-century historian Cui Hong in the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms and refers to the five Liangs (Former, Later, Northern, Southern and Western), four Yans (Former, Later, Northern, and Southern), three Qins (Former, Later and Western), two Zhaos (Former and Later), Cheng Han and Xia.

- Sixteen Kingdoms
Territory of the Former Qin kingdom and the Jin dynasty in 376.

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The Jin dynasty (yellow) at its greatest extent, c. 280, during the Western Jin dynasty

Jin dynasty (266–420)

Imperial dynasty of China that existed from 266 to 420.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed from 266 to 420.

The Jin dynasty (yellow) at its greatest extent, c. 280, during the Western Jin dynasty
Molded-brick mural, identified as the "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove and Rong Qiqi", one of two walls a part of the coffin found in a tomb of the capital region of the Southern dynasties (5th–6th. c.), second half of the fifth century, at Xishanqiao, near Nanjing. 88 x 240 cm. Nanjing Museum. This part of the murals may reflect a composition of the famous Lu Tanwei, considered as the single greatest painter of all times by the Chinese critic Xi He (act. 500–536) : ref. from China : Dawn of a Golden Age, 200–750 AD, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Yale University Press 2004. We can recognize Ji Kang (223–262), on the left, under a gingko tree.
Hunping jar of the Western Jin, with Buddhist figures.
Menfa Politics: Administrative divisions of Eastern Jin dynasty, as of 382 AD
Lacquer screen, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE. Untypical of Northern Wei styles, it was probably brought from the court of the Jin dynasty by Sima Jinlong's father. Alternatively, it could be a Northern Wei work strongly influenced by Jin artistic styles, such as the work of Gu Kaizhi.
Yue ware with motif, 3rd century CE, Western Jin, Zhejiang.
Scene of the Admonitions Scroll, traditionally considered as a Jin court painting by Gu Kaizhi (ca. 345–406)
Pottery tower, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon lion-shaped bixie, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon lian bowl with Buddhist figures, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon jar, Eastern Jin, 317–420 CE.
Celadon jar with brown spots, Eastern Jin, 317-420 CE.
Western Jin porcelain female figurine.
Lacquer screen, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE. Untypical of Northern Wei styles, it was probably brought from the court of the Jin dynasty by Sima Jinlong's father. Alternatively, it could be a Northern Wei work strongly influenced by Jin artistic styles, such as the work of Gu Kaizhi.
Ornamental plaque, Eastern Jin dynasty, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

The Jin dynasty was preceded by the Three Kingdoms period, and was succeeded by the Sixteen Kingdoms in northern China and the Liu Song dynasty in southern China.

Notably, in 383, the Eastern Jin inflicted a devastating defeat on the Former Qin, a Di-ruled state that had briefly unified northern China.

A depiction of Yu, the initiator of dynastic rule in China, by the Southern Song court painter Ma Lin.

Dynasties in Chinese history

Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history.

Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history.

A depiction of Yu, the initiator of dynastic rule in China, by the Southern Song court painter Ma Lin.
An illustration of the Battle of Shanhai Pass, a decisive battle fought during the Ming–Qing transition. The victorious Qing dynasty extended its rule into China proper thereafter.
A photograph of the Xuantong Emperor, widely considered to be the last legitimate monarch of China, taken in AD 1922.
Imperial seal of the Qing dynasty with "Dà Qīng Dìguó zhī xǐ" (大清帝國之璽; "Seal of the Great Qing Empire") rendered in seal script. Seals were a symbol of political authority and legitimacy.
A German map of the Chinese Empire during the height of the Qing dynasty. The Qing dynasty is considered to be a "Central Plain dynasty", a "unified dynasty", and a "conquest dynasty".
Approximate territories controlled by the various dynasties and states throughout Chinese history, juxtaposed with the modern Chinese border.

Political division existed during the Three Kingdoms, the Sixteen Kingdoms, the Northern and Southern dynasties, and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms periods, among others.

Several of the Sixteen Kingdoms such as the Han Zhao, the Later Zhao, and the Former Qin also claimed legitimacy

Later Zhao in northern China

Later Zhao

Later Zhao in northern China

The Later Zhao (319–351) was a dynasty of the Sixteen Kingdoms in northern China.

The Later Zhao was the second in territorial size to the Former Qin dynasty that once unified northern China under Fu Jiān.

Major Han-period dialect groups inferred from the Fangyan

Di (Five Barbarians)

Major Han-period dialect groups inferred from the Fangyan

The Di (< Eastern Han Chinese *tei < Old Chinese (B-S): *tˤij) were an ancient ethnic group that lived in western China, and are best known as one of the non-Han Chinese peoples known as the Five Barbarians that overran northern China during the Jin dynasty (266–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms period.

During this era, the Di ruled the states of Cheng Han (304–347), Former Qin (351–394) and Later Liang (386–403).

Former Liang in the northwest

Former Liang

Former Liang in the northwest

The Former Liang (320–376) was a dynastic state, one of the Sixteen Kingdoms, in Chinese history.

However, at times the other Former Liang rulers also used the wang title when imposed on them when they were forced to submit to the Han Zhao, Later Zhao, or Former Qin dynasties.

Shanxi

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Pagoda of Fogong Temple built in 1056
Yan Xishan, warlord of Shanxi during the Republic of China.
Chinese troops marching to defend the mountain pass at Xinkou.
The Shanxi Museum located on the west bank of Fen River in downtown Taiyuan.
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, Ying County, built in 1056.
A street in Pingyao.
Temple of Guandi in Datong.
Chenghuangshen (City God) Temple of Pingyao.
Western gate of a Temple of Heshen (River God) in Hequ, Xinzhou.

During the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304–439), several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi.

Later Qin in 402 AD

Later Qin

Later Qin in 402 AD

The Later Qin (384–417), also known as Yao Qin (姚秦), was a state ruled by the Qiang ethnicity of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin dynasty (266–420) in China.

The Later Qin is entirely distinct from the Qin dynasty, the Former Qin and the Western Qin.

Lineage of the Dingling

Dingling

The Dingling ( (174 BCE); (200 BCE); Eastern Han Chinese: *teŋ-leŋ < Old Chinese: *têŋ-rêŋ) were ancient people who lived in Siberia, mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.

The Dingling ( (174 BCE); (200 BCE); Eastern Han Chinese: *teŋ-leŋ < Old Chinese: *têŋ-rêŋ) were ancient people who lived in Siberia, mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.

Lineage of the Dingling

During the Sixteen Kingdoms period, the West Dingling Khan Zhai Bin (翟斌) lead his hordes, migrate from Kazakhstan into Central China, served under the Former Qin, after series of plotting, Zhai Bin was betrayed by Former Qin, to avoid Qin nobles further attempts, he revolted against the Former Qin Dynasty.