Painting depicting a Xianbei Murong archer in a tomb of the Former Yan (337–370).
Former Qin 376 CE
The Xianbei state (1st–3rd century).
Former Qin 376 CE
Figure of a Xianbei warrior from the Northern Dynasties (286–581 AD) era. The figure wear a covered "wind hat", trousers, short upper tunic and a cape tied around the neck, designed to protect against the wind and dust.
Xianbei musician, tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE.
Northern dynasties horseman
Northern Wei cavalry
Northern Wei cavalry
Xianbei belt buckles, 3–4th century AD
Xianbei head ornament with horse motif
Northern Wei earrings
Painting of the Tuoba-Xianbei Northern Zhou general Li Xian (504-569 CE).
Female Xianbei figure

The Xianbei were at one point all defeated and conquered by the Di-led Former Qin dynasty before it fell apart not long after its defeat in the Battle of Fei River by the Eastern Jin.

- Xianbei

One fragment, at present-day Taiyuan, Shanxi was soon overwhelmed in 386 by the Xianbei under the Later Yan and the Dingling.

- Former Qin
Painting depicting a Xianbei Murong archer in a tomb of the Former Yan (337–370).

5 related topics

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Major Han-period dialect groups inferred from the Fangyan

Di (Five Barbarians)

Ancient ethnic group that lived in western China, and are best known as one of the non-Han Chinese peoples known as the Five Barbarians that overran northern China during the Jin dynasty (266–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms period.

Ancient ethnic group that lived in western China, and are best known as one of the non-Han Chinese peoples known as the Five Barbarians that overran northern China during the Jin dynasty (266–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms period.

Major Han-period dialect groups inferred from the Fangyan

During the Jin dynasty, the five semi-nomadic tribes of Xiongnu, Jie, Xianbei, Di, and Qiang conquered northern China.

During this era, the Di ruled the states of Cheng Han (304–347), Former Qin (351–394) and Later Liang (386–403).

The Jin dynasty (yellow) at its greatest extent, c. 280, during the Western Jin dynasty

Jin dynasty (266–420)

Imperial dynasty of China that existed from 266 to 420.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed from 266 to 420.

The Jin dynasty (yellow) at its greatest extent, c. 280, during the Western Jin dynasty
Molded-brick mural, identified as the "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove and Rong Qiqi", one of two walls a part of the coffin found in a tomb of the capital region of the Southern dynasties (5th–6th. c.), second half of the fifth century, at Xishanqiao, near Nanjing. 88 x 240 cm. Nanjing Museum. This part of the murals may reflect a composition of the famous Lu Tanwei, considered as the single greatest painter of all times by the Chinese critic Xi He (act. 500–536) : ref. from China : Dawn of a Golden Age, 200–750 AD, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Yale University Press 2004. We can recognize Ji Kang (223–262), on the left, under a gingko tree.
Hunping jar of the Western Jin, with Buddhist figures.
Menfa Politics: Administrative divisions of Eastern Jin dynasty, as of 382 AD
Lacquer screen, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE. Untypical of Northern Wei styles, it was probably brought from the court of the Jin dynasty by Sima Jinlong's father. Alternatively, it could be a Northern Wei work strongly influenced by Jin artistic styles, such as the work of Gu Kaizhi.
Yue ware with motif, 3rd century CE, Western Jin, Zhejiang.
Scene of the Admonitions Scroll, traditionally considered as a Jin court painting by Gu Kaizhi (ca. 345–406)
Pottery tower, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon lion-shaped bixie, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon lian bowl with Buddhist figures, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon jar, Eastern Jin, 317–420 CE.
Celadon jar with brown spots, Eastern Jin, 317-420 CE.
Western Jin porcelain female figurine.
Lacquer screen, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE. Untypical of Northern Wei styles, it was probably brought from the court of the Jin dynasty by Sima Jinlong's father. Alternatively, it could be a Northern Wei work strongly influenced by Jin artistic styles, such as the work of Gu Kaizhi.
Ornamental plaque, Eastern Jin dynasty, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Notably, in 383, the Eastern Jin inflicted a devastating defeat on the Former Qin, a Di-ruled state that had briefly unified northern China.

The Xianbei Northern Wei accepted the Jin refugees Sima Fei and Sima Chuzhi (司馬楚之).

The situation during Battle of Fei River

Battle of Fei River

The situation during Battle of Fei River
Former Qin is in purple, while the Eastern Jin is in yellow. The red line marks the new border between Former Qin and Eastern Jin after the latter's victory at Fei River, while the border marked on the map represents the pre-battle border, the furthest line reached by Former Qin forces before their catastrophic defeat.
Jin iron swords

The Battle of Fei River, also known as the Battle of Feishui, was a battle in AD 383 in China, where forces of the Di-led Former Qin dynasty was decisively defeated by the outnumbered army of the Eastern Jin dynasty.

Fu Jiān's force was composed of many smaller armies levied from the conquered northern territories, along with cavalry drawn from the nomadic peoples of the north (the Xianbei and Xiongnu).

Shanxi

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Pagoda of Fogong Temple built in 1056
Yan Xishan, warlord of Shanxi during the Republic of China.
Chinese troops marching to defend the mountain pass at Xinkou.
The Shanxi Museum located on the west bank of Fen River in downtown Taiyuan.
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, Ying County, built in 1056.
A street in Pingyao.
Temple of Guandi in Datong.
Chenghuangshen (City God) Temple of Pingyao.
Western gate of a Temple of Heshen (River God) in Hequ, Xinzhou.

During the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304–439), several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi.

They were followed by Northern Wei (386–534), a Xianbei kingdom, which had one of its earlier capitals at present-day Datong in northern Shanxi, and which went on to rule nearly all of northern China.

Lineage of the Dingling

Dingling

The Dingling ( (174 BCE); (200 BCE); Eastern Han Chinese: *teŋ-leŋ < Old Chinese: *têŋ-rêŋ) were ancient people who lived in Siberia, mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.

The Dingling ( (174 BCE); (200 BCE); Eastern Han Chinese: *teŋ-leŋ < Old Chinese: *têŋ-rêŋ) were ancient people who lived in Siberia, mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.

Lineage of the Dingling

Over the next century there may have been more uprisings, but the only recorded one was in the year 85, when together with the Xianbei they made their final attack on the Xiongnu, and Dingling regained its power under Zhai Ying.

During the Sixteen Kingdoms period, the West Dingling Khan Zhai Bin (翟斌) lead his hordes, migrate from Kazakhstan into Central China, served under the Former Qin, after series of plotting, Zhai Bin was betrayed by Former Qin, to avoid Qin nobles further attempts, he revolted against the Former Qin Dynasty.