Former Qin

Former Qin 376 CE
Former Qin 376 CE

Dynastic state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in Chinese history ruled by the Di ethnicity.

- Former Qin
Former Qin 376 CE

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Territory of the Former Qin kingdom and the Jin dynasty in 376.

Sixteen Kingdoms

Chaotic period in Chinese history from AD 304 to 439 when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states.

Chaotic period in Chinese history from AD 304 to 439 when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived dynastic states.

Territory of the Former Qin kingdom and the Jin dynasty in 376.
Ruins of Tongwancheng, the capital of the Xia kingdom built in the early 5th century by Xiongnu chieftain Helian Bobo in modern-day Jingbian, in northern Shaanxi province, near the border with Inner Mongolia. Tongwancheng was captured by the Xianbei-led Northern Wei in 427.
A mural painting showing a leisurely life scene 384-441 A.D., from the Dingjiazha Tomb No. 5 in Chiu-ch'üan, Later Liang – Northern Liang.
The White Horse Pagoda, Dunhuang, commemorating Kumarajiva's white horse which carried the scriptures to China, c. 384.
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The term "Sixteen Kingdoms" was first used by the 6th-century historian Cui Hong in the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms and refers to the five Liangs (Former, Later, Northern, Southern and Western), four Yans (Former, Later, Northern, and Southern), three Qins (Former, Later and Western), two Zhaos (Former and Later), Cheng Han and Xia.

Painting depicting a Xianbei Murong archer in a tomb of the Former Yan (337–370).

Xianbei

Today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China.

Today Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeastern China.

Painting depicting a Xianbei Murong archer in a tomb of the Former Yan (337–370).
The Xianbei state (1st–3rd century).
Figure of a Xianbei warrior from the Northern Dynasties (286–581 AD) era. The figure wear a covered "wind hat", trousers, short upper tunic and a cape tied around the neck, designed to protect against the wind and dust.
Xianbei musician, tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE.
Northern dynasties horseman
Northern Wei cavalry
Northern Wei cavalry
Xianbei belt buckles, 3–4th century AD
Xianbei head ornament with horse motif
Northern Wei earrings
Painting of the Tuoba-Xianbei Northern Zhou general Li Xian (504-569 CE).
Female Xianbei figure

The Xianbei were at one point all defeated and conquered by the Di-led Former Qin dynasty before it fell apart not long after its defeat in the Battle of Fei River by the Eastern Jin.

Major Han-period dialect groups inferred from the Fangyan

Di (Five Barbarians)

Ancient ethnic group that lived in western China, and are best known as one of the non-Han Chinese peoples known as the Five Barbarians that overran northern China during the Jin dynasty (266–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms period.

Ancient ethnic group that lived in western China, and are best known as one of the non-Han Chinese peoples known as the Five Barbarians that overran northern China during the Jin dynasty (266–420) and the Sixteen Kingdoms period.

Major Han-period dialect groups inferred from the Fangyan

During this era, the Di ruled the states of Cheng Han (304–347), Former Qin (351–394) and Later Liang (386–403).

The Jin dynasty (yellow) at its greatest extent, c. 280, during the Western Jin dynasty

Jin dynasty (266–420)

Imperial dynasty of China that existed from 266 to 420.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed from 266 to 420.

The Jin dynasty (yellow) at its greatest extent, c. 280, during the Western Jin dynasty
Molded-brick mural, identified as the "Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove and Rong Qiqi", one of two walls a part of the coffin found in a tomb of the capital region of the Southern dynasties (5th–6th. c.), second half of the fifth century, at Xishanqiao, near Nanjing. 88 x 240 cm. Nanjing Museum. This part of the murals may reflect a composition of the famous Lu Tanwei, considered as the single greatest painter of all times by the Chinese critic Xi He (act. 500–536) : ref. from China : Dawn of a Golden Age, 200–750 AD, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Yale University Press 2004. We can recognize Ji Kang (223–262), on the left, under a gingko tree.
Hunping jar of the Western Jin, with Buddhist figures.
Menfa Politics: Administrative divisions of Eastern Jin dynasty, as of 382 AD
Lacquer screen, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE. Untypical of Northern Wei styles, it was probably brought from the court of the Jin dynasty by Sima Jinlong's father. Alternatively, it could be a Northern Wei work strongly influenced by Jin artistic styles, such as the work of Gu Kaizhi.
Yue ware with motif, 3rd century CE, Western Jin, Zhejiang.
Scene of the Admonitions Scroll, traditionally considered as a Jin court painting by Gu Kaizhi (ca. 345–406)
Pottery tower, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon lion-shaped bixie, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon lian bowl with Buddhist figures, Western Jin, 265–317 CE.
Celadon jar, Eastern Jin, 317–420 CE.
Celadon jar with brown spots, Eastern Jin, 317-420 CE.
Western Jin porcelain female figurine.
Lacquer screen, from the tomb of Sima Jinlong, 484 CE. Untypical of Northern Wei styles, it was probably brought from the court of the Jin dynasty by Sima Jinlong's father. Alternatively, it could be a Northern Wei work strongly influenced by Jin artistic styles, such as the work of Gu Kaizhi.
Ornamental plaque, Eastern Jin dynasty, Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Notably, in 383, the Eastern Jin inflicted a devastating defeat on the Former Qin, a Di-ruled state that had briefly unified northern China.

East Asian Dragons are legendary creatures in East-Asian mythology and culture.

Fu Jian (337–385)

East Asian Dragons are legendary creatures in East-Asian mythology and culture.

Fu Jian (337–385), courtesy name Yonggu (永固) or Wenyu (文玉), formally Emperor Xuanzhao of (Former) Qin ((前)秦宣昭帝), was an emperor (who, however, used the title "Heavenly King" (Tian Wang) during his reign) of the Di-led Chinese Former Qin dynasty, under whose rule (assisted by his able prime minister Wang Meng) the Former Qin state reached its greatest glory—destroying Former Yan, Former Liang, and Dai and seizing Jin's Yi Province (modern Sichuan and Chongqing), posturing to destroy Jin as well to unite China, until he was repelled at the Battle of Fei River in 383.

Later Zhao in northern China

Later Zhao

Dynasty of the Sixteen Kingdoms in northern China.

Dynasty of the Sixteen Kingdoms in northern China.

Later Zhao in northern China

The Later Zhao was the second in territorial size to the Former Qin dynasty that once unified northern China under Fu Jiān.

Shanxi

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Landlocked province of the People's Republic of China and is part of the North China region.

Pagoda of Fogong Temple built in 1056
Yan Xishan, warlord of Shanxi during the Republic of China.
Chinese troops marching to defend the mountain pass at Xinkou.
The Shanxi Museum located on the west bank of Fen River in downtown Taiyuan.
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, Ying County, built in 1056.
A street in Pingyao.
Temple of Guandi in Datong.
Chenghuangshen (City God) Temple of Pingyao.
Western gate of a Temple of Heshen (River God) in Hequ, Xinzhou.

During the invasion of northern nomads in the Sixteen Kingdoms period (304–439), several regimes including the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, and Later Yan continuously controlled Shanxi.

A depiction of Yu, the initiator of dynastic rule in China, by the Southern Song court painter Ma Lin.

Dynasties in Chinese history

Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history.

Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history.

A depiction of Yu, the initiator of dynastic rule in China, by the Southern Song court painter Ma Lin.
An illustration of the Battle of Shanhai Pass, a decisive battle fought during the Ming–Qing transition. The victorious Qing dynasty extended its rule into China proper thereafter.
A photograph of the Xuantong Emperor, widely considered to be the last legitimate monarch of China, taken in AD 1922.
Imperial seal of the Qing dynasty with "Dà Qīng Dìguó zhī xǐ" (大清帝國之璽; "Seal of the Great Qing Empire") rendered in seal script. Seals were a symbol of political authority and legitimacy.
A German map of the Chinese Empire during the height of the Qing dynasty. The Qing dynasty is considered to be a "Central Plain dynasty", a "unified dynasty", and a "conquest dynasty".
Approximate territories controlled by the various dynasties and states throughout Chinese history, juxtaposed with the modern Chinese border.

Several of the Sixteen Kingdoms such as the Han Zhao, the Later Zhao, and the Former Qin also claimed legitimacy

Taiyuan

Capital and largest city of Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

Capital and largest city of Shanxi Province, People's Republic of China.

A sitting bodhisattva statue originally from Tianlongshan Grottoes, currently in Museum Rietberg, Zürich
Main battles involved for the establishment of Tang Dynasty originated from Taiyuan.
The hall of the holy mother in Jinci, constructed from 1023 to 1032 during the Song dynasty
Taiyuan Cathedral, photographed by Edouard Chavannes in 1907
Chinese soldiers and civilians celebrating the victory at Pingxingguan in 1937
Taiyuan Campaign
Satellite image of Taiyuan
Map of the region including Taiyuan (labeled as TʻAI-YÜAN (YANGKÜ) 太原) (AMS, 1956)
Taiyuan Riverside Sports Arena
A 1 route bus at Taiyuan
Taiyuan Airport
Taiyuan Railway Station
Tounao was created in Taiyuan.
Changfeng (长风) footbridge on Fen River and Shanxi Theater
Shanxi Folklore Museum courtyard with old Confucian temple
The twin towers inside the Yongzuo Temple.
Jinci Temple

Taiyuan is an ancient city with more than 2500 years of urban history, dating back from 497 BC. It was the capital or secondary capital of Zhao, Former Qin, Eastern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Jin, Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han, Northern Han.

Former Liang in the northwest

Former Liang

Dynastic state, one of the Sixteen Kingdoms, in Chinese history.

Dynastic state, one of the Sixteen Kingdoms, in Chinese history.

Former Liang in the northwest

However, at times the other Former Liang rulers also used the wang title when imposed on them when they were forced to submit to the Han Zhao, Later Zhao, or Former Qin dynasties.